Alternate titles: Brønsted–Lowry definition, acids and also bases, proton concept of, proton theory of acids and also bases
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Brønsted-Lowry theory, likewise called proton theory of acids and bases, a theory, introduced separately in 1923 by the Danish chemist johannes Nicolaus Brønsted and also the English chemist thomas Martin Lowry, stating that any compound that deserve to transfer a proton to any type of other link is an acid, and also the compound that accepts the proton is a base. A proton is a nuclear bit with a unit positive electrical charge; that is represented by the prize H+ since it constitutes the cell core of a hydrogen atom.


Overview of three theories that acids and also bases: Arrhenius theory, Brønsted-Lowry theory, and also Lewis theory.

follow to the Brønsted-Lowry system a problem can role as an acid only in the presence of a base; similarly, a substance can role as a base only in the presence of an acid. Furthermore, once an acidic substance loser a proton, it develops a base, referred to as the conjugate basic of one acid, and when a simple substance benefit a proton, it develops an acid called the conjugate mountain of a base. Thus, the reaction in between an acidic substance, such together hydrochloric acid, and also a an easy substance, such as ammonia, might be represented by the equation:

In stimulate to deal with the various challenges in the hydrogen–hydroxide ion definitions of acids and also bases, a new, more generalized definition...


In the equation the ammonium ion (NH+4 ) is the mountain conjugate come the base ammonia, and the chloride ion (Cl-) is the basic conjugate to hydrochloric acid.

The Brønsted-Lowry concept enlarges the variety of compounds thought about to be acids and also bases to encompass not only the neutral molecules (e.g., sulfuric, nitric, and also acetic acids, and also the alkali steel hydroxides) however also specific atoms and also molecules with optimistic and an adverse electrical dues (cations and also anions). The ammonium ion, the hydronium ion, and some hydrated steel cations are considered acids. The acetate, phosphate, carbonate, sulfide, and halogen ions are taken into consideration bases.

The editors of Encyclopaedia snucongo.orgThis article was many recently revised and updated by Erik Gregersen, an elderly Editor.

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