Search databaseBooksAll DatabasesAssemblyBiocollectionsBioProjectBioSampleBioSystemsBooksClinVarConserved DomainsdbGaPdbVarGeneGenomeGEO DataSetsGEO ProfilesGTRHomoloGeneIdentical Protein GroupsMedGenMeSHsnucongo.org net Sitesnucongo.org CatalogNucleotideOMIMPMCPopSetProteinProtein ClustersProtein family ModelsPubChem BioAssayPubChem CompoundPubChem SubstancePubMedSNPSRAStructureTaxonomyToolKitToolKitAllToolKitBookgh

snucongo.org Bookshelf. A company of the national Library that Medicine, national Institutes that Health.

You are watching: Blood groups are a classic example of what inheritance in humans

Pratt VM, Scott SA, Pirmohamed M, et al., editors. Medical genes Summaries . Bethesda (MD): National facility for Biotechnology information (US); 2012-.


*

Characteristics

There are four usual blood groups in the ABO system: O, A, B, and also AB. The blood groups are characterized by the presence of specific carbohydrate sugars on the surface ar of red blood cells, N-acetylgalactosamine because that the A antigen, and also D-galactose for the B antigen. Both of this sugars are built upon the H antigen—if the H antigen is left unmodified, the resulting blood team is O because neither the A nor the B antigen can connect to the red blood cells.

Individuals will certainly naturally develop antibodies against the ABO antigens they do not have. Because that example, individuals with blood team A will have actually anti-B antibodies, and also individuals v blood team O will have both anti-A and also anti-B. Prior to a blood transfusion takes place, regimen serological testing checks the compatibility that the ABO (and Rh) blood groups. An ABO incompatible blood transfusion deserve to be fatal, because of the extremely immunogenic nature that the A and also B antigens, and also the equivalent strongly hemolytic antibodies (1).

Compared to various other blood groups, people with blood group O may have a lower risk of pancreatic cancer and thromboembolic an illness (2, 3). In addition, in details African populations, people with the blood team O may be protected from life-threatening malaria (4). However, this blood group is not much more common in some regions where malaria is endemic. This can be because individuals v blood team O room at greater risk of cholera and severe diarrhea because of Vibrio cholerae 01, with individuals with the ab blood group being the most defended (5, 6).

Over 80 ABO alleles have actually been reported. The common alleles include A1, A2, B1, O1, O1v, and O2 (7). Conversely, the A and also B alleles each encode a details glycosyl-transferring enzyme, the O allele appears to have actually no function. A single-base deletion in the O allele means that people with blood group O perform not produce either the A or B antigens. Blood kind frequencies differ in different racial/ethnic groups. In the US, in Caucasians, the ratio of blood team O, A, B, and abdominal muscle is 45%, 40%, 11%, and also 4% respectively. In Hispanics, the circulation is 57%, 31%, 10%, and 3%; and also in Blacks, 50%, 26%, 20%, and also 4% (8).


Diagnosis/testing

Serological trial and error is sufficient to determine an individual’s blood type (e.g., blood team A) for the purposes of blood donation and also transfusion. Molecular genetic trial and error can be provided to identify an individual’s ABO genotype (e.g., genotype AO or AA). This may be beneficial in the research setting, for example, to inspection the link in between ABO blood groups and details diseases, and additionally in the forensic setup (9).


Management

Determining an individual’s blood team is essential prior to blood transfusion and also prior to the donation or receiving the a kidney transplant.

Occasionally, a person’s blood form may appear to change. For example, the ABO antigens have the right to act as tumor markers. Their presence might be decreased in specific diseases, such together acute myeloid leukemia, AML (10). In contrast, periodically the B antigen might be obtained in particular infectious diseases. A bacterial infection with details strains of E. Coli or Clostridium tertium can generate a B-like antigen indigenous an separation, personal, instance who has the A1 allele (11).


Genetic counseling

The ABO blood form is inherited in one autosomal codominant fashion. The A and also B alleles room codominant, and the O allele is recessive.


Acknowledgments

The author would like to give thanks to Michael Murphy, Professor the Blood Transfusion Medicine, university of Oxford, and also Consultant Haematologist, NHS Blood & Transplant and also Oxford college Hospitals, Oxford, UK, because that reviewing this summary.


Food and also Drug Administration. Rockville (MD) Transfusion/Donation Fatalities: notification Process for Transfusion connected Fatalities and also Donation connected Deaths. . Accessible from: https://www​.fda.gov/vaccines-blood-biologics​/report-problem-center-biologics-evaluation-research​/transfusiondonation-fatalities.

See more: Is A Colloid A Pure Substance S And Mixtures Flashcards, Science: Pure Substances And Mixtures Flashcards


Amundadottir L., Kraft P., Stolzenberg-Solomon R.Z., Fuchs C.S., et al. Genome-wide association study identifies variants in the ABO locus linked with susceptibility to pancreatic cancer. Nature genetics. 2009;41(9):986–90.
Tregouet D.A., heather S., Saut N., Biron-Andreani C., et al. Usual susceptibility alleles are unlikely to contribute as strongly as the FV and also ABO loci come VTE risk: outcomes from a GWAS approach. Blood. 2009;113(21):5298–303.
Fry A.E., Griffiths M.J., Auburn S., Diakite M., et al. Typical variation in the ABO glycosyltransferase is linked with susceptibility to severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Human being molecular genetics. 2008;17(4):567–76.
Faruque A.S., Mahalanabis D., Hoque S.S., Albert M.J. The relationship between ABO blood groups and susceptibility come diarrhea because of Vibrio cholerae 0139. Clinical infectious diseases. 1994;18(5):827–8.
Rowe J.A., Handel I.G., Thera M.A., Deans A.M., et al. Blood team O protects versus severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria with the device of lessened rosetting. Proceedings the the nationwide Academy of scientific researches of the United says of America. 2007;104(44):17471–6.
Seltsam A., Hallensleben M., Kollmann A., Blasczyk R. The nature the diversity and also diversification at the ABO locus. Blood. 2003;102(8):3035–42.
Garratty G., Glynn S.A., McEntire R. ABO and also Rh(D) phenotype frequencies of different racial/ethnic teams in the joined States. Transfusion. 2004;44(5):703–6.
Johnson P.H., Hopkinson D.A. Detection that ABO blood group polymorphism by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Human being molecular genetics. 1992;1(5):341–4.
Bianco-Miotto T., Hussey D.J., work T.K., O"Keefe D.S., Dobrovic A. DNA methylation the the ABO promoter underlies loss of ABO allelic expression in a significant proportion the leukemic patients. PloS one. 2009;4(3):e4788. p.
Roath S., Todd C.E., demonstrate D. Transient got blood group B antigen associated with diverticular bowel disease. Acta haematologica. 1987;77(3):188–90.

All Medical genes Summaries content, except where otherwise noted, is license is granted under a an innovative Commons Attribution 4.0 global (CC by 4.0) license which patent copying, distribution, and adaptation the the work, noted the original work is appropriately cited and also any changes from the original job-related are correctly indicated. Any altered, transformed, or adapted kind of the work might only be dispersed under the same or comparable license to this one.