A frequency circulation is the organization of raw data in table form, making use of classes and frequencies.

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The categorical frequency distribution is offered for data that can be put in specific categories, such together nominal- or ordinal-level data. Because that example, data such as political affiliation, spiritual affiliation, or major field of examine would usage categorical frequency distributions.
When the range of the data is large, the data need to be grouped into classes that are an ext than one unit in width, in what is called a grouped frequency distribution.
Class borders numbers are offered to separate the classes so that there room no gaps in the frequency distribution.
Finally, the class width for a course in a frequency circulation is uncovered by individually the lower (or upper) class limit that one class from the reduced (or upper) course limit that the next class
The course midpoint Xm is obtained by including the lower and upper boundaries and also dividing by 2, or including the lower and also upper limits and also dividing by 2:
A cumulative frequency circulation is a distribution that reflects the number of data values less than or same to a specific value (usually an upper boundary).
When the range of the data values is fairly small, a frequency circulation can be constructed using single data values for every class. This form of circulation is referred to as an ungrouped frequency distribution
That is, the course has no certain beginning worth or no details ending value. A frequency circulation with an open-ended course is referred to as an open-ended distribution.
The histogram is a graph that display screens the data by making use of contiguous vertical bars (unless the frequency the a class is 0) of assorted heights to represent the frequencies of the classes.
The frequency polygon is a graph that display screens the data by making use of lines that connect points plotted for the frequencies in ~ the midpoints of the classes. The frequencies are stood for by the heights the the points.
The accumulation frequency is the amount of the frequencies gathered up come the upper boundary of a course in the distribution.
The ogive is a graph that represents the cumulative frequencies for the classes in a frequency distribution.

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The histogram, the frequency polygon, and also the ogive presented previously were built by using frequencies in terms of the raw data. This distributions deserve to be convert to distributions utilizing proportions instead of raw data as frequencies. These types of graphs are called relative frequency graphs.



Statistical methods in Business and also Economics15th EditionDouglas A. Lind, Samuel A. Wathen, wilhelm G. Marchal