Jovian human beings of the Solar SystemGiant PlanetsWhen learned in class 8 the the outer planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, type a course by themselves. Lock owe your size and makeup to the truth that lock formed past the "frost line" the the solar nebula indigenous which the solar device formed. Recall that due to the fact that ice flakes can form, along with the rock and metallic flakes, this planets can grow much larger than the terrestrial planets. In fact, they prospered so big that they could attract and retain hydrogen and helium, the stuff that made up 99% the the solar nebula, so they finished up consisting of a reasonably small rocky core through thick outer layers that hydrogen and helium. Let"s take a short look at every one, as seen by the Hubble an are Telescope: Jupiter Saturn Uranus (IR image) Neptune (rotation movie) From this images, we have the right to see the surface of the planets (not really a solid surface at all, simply cloud tops). All 4 of the jovian planets (gas giants) rotate rapidly: Jupiter 9h 50m;


Time slide out movie mirroring Jupiter rotation over about 1 hour, taken on 2004 Apr 20. Note the moon to the right, and also the good red spot.

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Saturn 10h 20m; Uranus 16h 33m; Neptune 17h 16m. Due to the fact that they have no hard surface, lock all endure differential rotation (the equators rotate an ext rapidly 보다 the poles). Lecture inquiry #1 but what room they choose inside? In fact, we perform not yes, really know really much for details about the interiors of the huge planets. We only have actually a couple of clues to aid us to guess. Below is how it is done:

We recognize the original makeup the the solar nebula. We understand the masses and also sizes (and hence, the densities) the the planets. We know how matter behaves at high densities and pressures, from laboratory experiments and an easy physics. We deserve to measure the planets" energy input (from the Sun) and also energy calculation (reprocessed energy from the Sun, along with some internally produced energy), so we can obtain the temperature. because that one planet, Jupiter, we sent a probe right into the atmosphere. Piecing together every one of the clues, here are the models that are at this time accepted (but they may be wrong!): What looks favor the outer edge the the planets is no a hard surface--it is just the cloud tops. The clouds room made of solid corpuscle (like eye flakes), droplets (like rain), and gases. However the stuff is hydrogen compounds (methane, ammonia, and also water). Although this clouds space 75% hydrogen and 24% helium, the trace amounts of these compounds is responsible for every one of the cloud colors and also other visible features. The ranges of the planets indigenous the sunlight are really different, every one being nearly twice as much as the previous one Jupiter -- 5 AU Saturn -- 10 AU Uranus -- 20 AU Neptune -- 30 AU previously we discussed how street from the sunlight governs how hot the planets are. Jupiter"s cloud tops space 125 K, i m sorry is too heat for that distance. Jupiter must have actually some source of heat--perhaps left over heat from that is formation. The relative sizes and also makeup of the interiors is like this: note the within layers that metallic hydrogen -- a kind of hydrogen that occurs v the significant pressures discovered inside Jupiter and also Saturn, where the hydrogen is therefore compressed the the atom share electrons. The electrons can circulation freely indigenous one atom come the next, just as in metals, so the it is electrically conducting. This is what generates the strong magnetic areas of Jupiter, and additionally Saturn. notice that Neptune and Uranus space too little and cold to have metallic hydrogen.

Lecture concern #2

Atmospheres that the Gas Giants

Galileo is an orbiter spacecraft circling Jupiter until newly (it to be crashed into Jupiter in September, 2003). Jupiter Probe The Galileo orbiter had an atmospheric probe that entered Jupiter"s environment in 1995 and also radioed back information about the upper layers the clouds. An overview of the cloud geometry is presented here. It gone into into a reasonably dry part of Jupiter"s atmosphere, and descended right into the hotter great beneath. Jupiter"s cloud tops space the lighter areas, dubbed zones, and are colder. Darker areas, called belts, are deeper great seen through gaps in the whiter clouds, and hence space hotter. Cassiniis one orbiter spacecraft currently at Saturn -- it arrived at 1 July 2004.

The Cassini orbiter has a probe that came down on Saturn"s biggest moon, Titan. Titan is so large that it deserve to retain an atmosphere of methane. We will discuss the moons and also rings of the huge planets in the following lecture.

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One the the most obvious differencesin the gas giants is your colors. These colors are due to the tracehydrogen compound that make up a small portion of your atmospheres,but nevertheless overcome the colors.Jupiter -- reds and also browns (ammonia,sulfer compounds, methane)Saturn -- reds and yellows (ammonia, sulfer compounds, methane) Uranus -- blues and greens (mostly indigenous methane gas)Neptune -- blue (from methanegas)Magnetospheres that the Gas GiantsThe environmentof Jupiter is a attention one, due to a huge amount of radiation trappedin the solid magnetic fields, i beg your pardon are generated by the metallic hydrogenof the interior. These solid magnetic fields make Jupiter action likea substantial magnet, as with the magnetic field of the earth only around 20,000times stronger. If our eyes could see the region of magnetic fieldsaround Jupiter (its magnetosphere),it would be bigger than the complete moon in the sky.Here is a figure from thetext, reflecting a to compare of the magnetospheres the the gigantic planets: from Bennett, Donahue, Schneider, Vogt, TheCosmic Perspective, 2nd edition.Notice that the magneticfields space dragged out in the direction away from the Sun, due to the solarwind.The corpuscle trapped inthese magnetic fields cause auroras as checked out from the Hubble space Telescope:Jupiter,Saturn.