XeF2 is a covalent not natural halide developed by the inert gas xenon and the halogen fluorine. This is an active solvent and is uncovered to be dissolve in various fluorides favor HF and bromine pentafluoride.

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If we look in ~ the process of synthesis of xenon difluoride, here’s the equation:

Xe + F2 ——Heat——> XeF2 

XeF2 acts together an oxidizing and also fluorinating agent and is offered to oxidize different hydrocarbons including both aromatic and also acyclic compounds.

Not just this, but this fluoride compound can likewise be used to etch silicon to type silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4) without any external power application.

If you space thinking around what XeF2 look at like, it shows up as a colorless-to-white crystalline solid v a density of about 4.32 g/cc.

This halide can cause some serious dangers like skin burns and major eye damage. Not only this, if inhaled or swallowed, it transforms out to it is in fatal.

Chemical Bonding

When two or more atoms come together they react and combine to type homogeneous and also heterogeneous molecules. This development of molecules happens via the development of specific bonds which organize the atoms with each other according to their strength.

This is recognized as chemistry bonding i beg your pardon is the backbone to define the internal structure and also nature that a offered molecular compound including the properties it exhibits( both physical and chemical).

Before we jump straight into the chemistry bonding of XeF2 in this article, us would prefer you to learn and recapitulate specific important terminologies and concepts.

Valence Electrons

The very first thing to discover when us are into chemical bonding is the ide of valence electrons. Valence electrons represent the outermost covering electrons of an atom that determine its valency.

If friend go v the routine table, the groups will aid us find out the valence electron variety of a specific atomic element.

For example, Carbon is in team 4 (also dubbed Group XIV), for this reason the valence shell is composed of four electrons.

XeF2 Lewis Structure

Lewis Structure, also known together electron dot structure, is critical model of chemistry bonding where we usage the valence electron concept to schematically map out a two-dimensional number of a given molecule.

We usage dots to represent external shell electrons and also lines to stand for the bond type.

Xenon is an inert gas element. Therefore, it has actually eight valence electrons. Fluorine is a halogen belonging to group VII, thus it has actually a valency of seven.

Total variety of valence electron =8 + 7*2 = 22

If you walk by the periodic table, we understand that xenon is less electronegative 보다 fluorine, hence it will take increase the position of a main atom.

Now the we have the central atom and the complete valence electron number, us will uncover out how the electrons are located to with the octet configuration( i.e. Eight electrons external each atom in its outer shell)


Now, as we can see we have achieved the octet fulfillment for the 3 atoms inside XeF2 and solitary bond development has to be done.

But if you count the total valence electrons in the diagram, we have the right to see the dots include up to 20 and also not 22.

Now, the obvious an option is to form a dual bond through the continuing to be two valence electrons instead of single bonds.

Fluorine is so electronegative it doesn’t commonly form twin bonds. So, we keep the valence electrons around xenon and also calculate the formal charge.

Formal Charge

If we get to assume the every electron is common equally amongst atoms, we can assign a formal charge to one atom.

This is a essential topic for chemical bonding, especially for Lewis framework determination whereby we require to examine the least possible formal charges of each combining atom to get the perfect diagrammatic representation.


For Xe, formal charge= 8 (valence electron number) – 0.5*4 (number of external inspection electrons) – 6 (no of lone pair electrons) = 0

For each fluorine atom, formal charge= 7 – 0.5*2 – 6 = 0

Therefore, since both the aspects are in your least possible formal charge values, we have acquired our most suitable Lewis Structure.

Note: This is an exception to the octet rule since xenon has an ext than eight electrons in this link in that is valence shell cloud.

Molecular Geometry

If you want to dive depth into exactly how the within of a molecule look at like, we need to learn about molecular geometry.

This is a jump from 2D come 3D structure representation where we have the right to visually photo how a molecule actually remains in bonding nature in reality.

Here, to help us recognize the correct molecular shape as well as the shortcut lengths and angles, we use a theory dubbed Valence covering Electron Pair Repulsion design (VSEPR).

This theory encounters the prefer charge repulsion arising between an unfavorable electron clouds surrounding atomic nuclei and also operates to minimization them to get a close to stable compound.

Xenon, being a noble gas and belonging to group 8 ( team XVIII), go not tend to form bonds together such. Here, in XeF2, the acts as the central atom and likewise forms two solitary bonds through the 2 fluorine atoms.

Now, us have discussed earlier that molecular geometry deserve to be guess via VSEPR theory. Let us look at this diagram:


Well, right here we can find the different shapes of molecules according to your steric number and lone pair number.We deserve to see via Lewis structure that Xenon in XeF2 has three lone pairs.

Now because that steric number, we require to add the variety of bonded atom to central Xe as well as the lone pair that electrons.

Therefore, Steric variety of Xe in xenon difluoride = 3+2 = 5.

If we look in ~ the picture, we can discover out the the shape will be linear and the link angle because of this 180 degrees.

If we comment on in detail, we can say the to minimize electron repulsion, such a structure is formed. The single bonds do the structure linear at first.

This is adhered to by every lone pair the pushes the lateral atoms away from Xe to a specific degree. Finally, the combined impact of all the 3 lone pairs provides the resultant framework linear.



Atoms have actually a probability function called atom Orbitals (AO) which gives us an idea about the ar of ingredient electrons. We have actually s,p.d,f atomic orbitals.

Do you understand that AOs do not type bonds within a molecule?

They fuse to form what is recognized as hybrid orbitals ( example sp, sp3) i m sorry take component in bond development in chemistry.

This procedure is known as hybridization.

If we need to learn around the hybridization of xenon difluoride, we have to look in ~ the respective electronic configurations.

Xe: 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p6Or, Xe: 4d10 5s2 5p6

F: 1s2 2s2 2p5Or, F: 2s2 2p5

So, we deserve to look at all the atomic orbitals that the atoms of the XeF2 molecule.

Now, we have to uncover out which AO linked with the other AO to type hybridized orbitals.

Now, below xenon has much more than eight electrons in that is valence shell( unpaired) together per Lewis Structure. So, this makes the atom excited and the configuration now has 5s2 5p5 5d1.


So, the hybridization here is sp3d. 2 hybrid orbitals are provided for sigma link formation( solitary bond) in XeF2 (F-Xe-F).

Molecular orbital Diagram

If we go a small further into chemical bonding and also hybridization, we acquire to know about the Molecular orbit Theory, a concept of quantum mechanics.

This gives us one idea around the MO diagram where we execute not consider linear bonds together such. Instead, we work with the spatial and energetic nature of electrons who occur to move about under nuclei’s influence.

Here, we involve the ideas of bonding and antibonding orbitals, sigma and also pi bonds as well as HOMO (Highest populated MO) and also LUMO (Lowest Unoccupied MO).

XeF2 is a polyatomic molecule. Therefore, us have countless atomic orbitals to deal which results in a huge number of MOs.

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In XeF2 we have ten electrons approximately Xe which result in possible resonance and delocalized bonding.

However, once we space looking at molecular orbital theory, we can see that Xenon Difluoride has actually 8 fill MOs:2