If the force of the egg highlight the floor orground is higher than the pressure that the eggshell have the right to exert on chin to save its shape, theegg will break. Some eggs room stronger thanothers, depending on how thick the covering is.Certain chemicals, such together the pesticide DDT, areknown to cause egg shells to be thinner and also easierto break. I don"t understand what is "normal" fordifferent types of birds.
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The floor pushes top top the egg and breaks itsshell. It"s like as soon as you struggle an egg versus aplate or something and also its covering breaks native theforce and work of the hitting. College student of allages execute experiments wherein they shot to protect anegg so it won"t break once they drop it. Thephysics students at my university drop your eggsfrom the 6th floor of the physics building.
An egg, and also anything rather for that matter, willbreak ("fail") as soon as the force used is greaterthan that forced to reason a loss ofload-bearing capacity. frequently thiscorresponds come the formation and growth that cracks.(Hopefully this is intuitive - once the materialseparates right into two piece (cracks), load cannot betransferred native one to the other.) Eggshells failin a brittle manner (more or less), for this reason the forceto cause the formation of the crack is bigger thanthe force to keep it growing: once a crackstarts, the won"t stop even if the pack isremoved. (There is much much more happening in ~ theatomic level, however I think the is beyond the scopeof this question.) because that objects the the samematerial, dimension matters - a small object can"t holdup the same force as a large one. So come compareloads throughout size scales, force F isnormalized bythe area it acts on A to provide a quantity calledstress, σ=F/A. In these terms, a material(such aseggshell) will break once the stress exceeds thefailure anxiety (sometimes referred to as strength) that thematerial. Note - the is still pressure that causesfailure; rewriting that as anxiety is a way tocompare the relevant forces at various sizes.
The pressure required to break the egg have the right to beestimated utilizing a bit of physics.
If one egg breaks by dropping that from a heightof 4 ft, the force used to the egg must begreater than what the eggshell deserve to withstand. Inthis case, the force is from the collision of theegg with the ground. For collisions, forces aregoverned by conservation of a quantity calledmomentum p. The inert of things withmass m is given by mass*velocity, m*v. In acollision, the pressure F on an object of mass m canbe calculate by manipulating Newton"s 2ndLaw, F=m*a, into a slightly different form.Acceleration a is identified as the readjust invelocity dv that occurs over part timet. So, Newton"s 2nd Law have the right to be rewritten as F=m*(dv/t), or F*t=m*dv. This second form is referred to as theImpulse-Momentum adjust equation, becauseF*t is a quantity referred to as impulse, and also m*dvis the change in momentum (as adheres to from m*vbeing momentum). To reach a particular number because that F,values because that each of this terms must be given.The massive of one egg m is approximately 50 g (assuming amedium-large egg in the USA), and the time that thecollision t need to be estimated, i beg your pardon I"ll take as0.01 seconds. The adjust in velocity dv is thedifference between the velocities before and afterimpact.
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after ~ is straightforward - 0 m/s. The velocity mustbe estimated, which have the right to be done with more physics.
When girlfriend drop the egg, it increases due togravity. This way that the force ofgravity pulling on the egg will reason the egg togo faster. This means that the eggwill gain momentum (which is a an elaborate wordfor speed) together it falls. When the egghits the ground after ~ falling the 4 feet, themomentum an extremely suddenly goes come zerosince the egg stop moving. This causes the egg toexperience a very huge forcefrom the ground. This huge force reasons thedelicate egg shell to break. Whydoes the sudden change in momentum cause a largeforce? well momentum andforce are associated by a amount that physicistscall impulse!
Basically if somethingexperiences a an extremely sudden change in momentum, thatcorresponds to a largeforce. If something experiences a steady changein momentum, the force issmaller. Think of exactly how if you are in a car and itstops quickly you could feel likethere is a huge force pulling on her seat belt. Onthe other hand, if the car stopsslowly you might not feel as well much. That is the sameidea!