Learning Objectives

Identify simple verb tenses. Recognize to be, to have, and to do verbs. Usage perfect verb tenses. Apply progressive verb tenses. Specify gerunds and also infinitives.

You must constantly use a verbA word that tells what the topic is act or links the topic to a explicate word. In every sentence you write. Verbs are components of decided that show actions or says of being. The most basic sentence structure is a subject complied with by a verb.

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Simple Verb Tenses

Verb tensesA verb form that identifies the moment of action described in a sentence. Tell the reader as soon as the action takes place. The activity could it is in in the past, present, or future.

Simple presentVerb tense that describes things the are usually true, suggests that an action takes ar in the present, or indicates that the activity is something that happens regularly. Verb are provided in the adhering to situations:

When the activity takes location now

I drink the water greedily.

When the action is something that happens regularly

I always cross my fingers for an excellent luck.

When describing points that are typically true

College tuition is very costly.

Table 5.4 Regular basic Present it is too dirty Verbs

Verb i He/She/It You we They
ask ask asks ask ask ask
bake bake bakes bake bake bake
cook cook cooks cook cook cook
cough cough coughs cough cough cough
clap clap claps clap clap clap
dance dance dances dance dance dance
erase erase erases erase erase erase
kiss kiss kisses kiss kiss kiss
push push pushes push push push
wash wash washes wash wash wash

When it is he, she, or it doing the present tense action, remember to include -s, or -es come the end of the verb or to change the y come -ies.

Simple pastVerb tense the is supplied when the activity has already taken place and is currently finished. Verbs are offered when the activity has currently taken place and also is now finished:

ns washed mine uniform critical night. Ns asked for more pie. I coughed loudly critical night.

Table 5.5 Regular straightforward Past tense Verbs

Verb ns He/She/It You us They
ask asked asked asked asked asked
bake baked baked baked baked baked
cook cooked cooked cooked cooked cooked
cough coughed coughed coughed coughed coughed
clap clapped clapped clapped clapped clapped
dance danced danced danced danced danced
erase erased erased erased erased erased
kiss kissed kissed kissed kissed kissed
push pushed pushed pushed pushed pushed
wash washed washed washed washed washed

When he, she, or it is law the action in the past tense, psychic to include -d or -ed to the end of continuous verbs.

Simple futureVerb tense that is provided when the action has no yet bring away place. Verbs are supplied when the action has not yet bring away place:

ns will work so late tomorrow. I will kiss my boyfriend when I watch him. Ns will erase the plank after class.

Table 5.6 Regular simple Future it is too dirty Verbs

Verb ns He/She/It You us They
ask will ask will ask will ask will ask will ask
bake will bake will bake will bake will bake will bake
cook will cook will cook will cook will cook will cook
cough will cough will cough will cough will cough will cough
clap will clap will clap will clap will clap will clap
dance will dance will dance will dance will dance will dance
erase will erase will erase will erase will erase will erase
kiss will kiss will kiss will kiss will kiss will kiss
push will push will push will push will push will push
wash will wash will wash will wash will wash will wash

Going to can likewise be included to the main verb to do it future tense:

i am going to go to work-related tomorrow.

Exercise 1

On a different sheet of paper, finish the complying with sentences by adding the verb in the correct basic tense.

Please execute not (erase, erased, will erase) what I have actually written top top the board. Lock (dance, danced, will certainly dance) for hrs after the party was over. Harrison (wash, washed, will certainly wash) his laundry after numerous weeks had actually passed. Yesterday mommy (ask, asked, will ask) me around my plans because that college. I (bake, baked, will certainly bake) several dozen cookie for tomorrow’s roasted sale.

Exercise 2

Correct the verb it s too dirty mistakes in the adhering to paragraph.

Last summer, ns walk about Walden Pond. Walden Pond is in Concord, Massachusetts. That is wherein the philosopher Henry David Thoreau will live throughout the mid-nineteenth century. Throughout his time there, he composed a book called Walden. Walden is a book of Thoreau’s reflections on the organic environment. It will certainly be take into consideration a standard in American literature. Ns did not recognize that Walden Pond is consider the birthplace that the environmental movement. That was an extremely relaxing there. I will listen to birds, frogs, and crickets, no to cite the serene sound of the pond itself.


Once friend have found all the errors you can, please share with a classmate and compare her answers. Did your partner uncover an error you missed? walk you find an error your companion missed? Compare v your instructor’s answers.

To Be, To Do, and To Have

There space some irregular verb in English that are developed in distinct ways. The most typical of these are the verb to be, to have, and also to do.

Table 5.7 Verb creates of To Be, To Do, and To Have

Base kind Present Tense kind Past Tense form Future Tense kind
be am/is/are was/were will be
do do/does did will do
have have/has had will have


Memorize the current tense develops of to be, to do, and also to have. A track or rhythmic pattern will make them much easier to memorize.

past ← present → Future
To Be
Yesterday i was angry. Today i am not angry. Tomorrow i will be angry.
To Do
I did my best yesterday. I do my finest every day. Tomorrow i will do mine best.
To Have
Yesterday ns had ten dollars. Today ns have ten dollars. Tomorrow i will have ten dollars.

Remember the adhering to uses of to be, come have and also to do:

To Be

ns → am/was/will it is in you/we/they → are/were/will it is in he/she/it → is/was/will be

To Have

I/you/we/they → have/had/will have he/she/it → has/had/will have

To Do

I/you/we/they → do/did/will do he/she/it → does/did/will do


Remember, if you have a compound subject choose Marie and also Jennifer, think that the topic as they to determine the exactly verb form.

Marie and Jennifer (they) have actually a house on Bainbridge Island.

Similarly, single names deserve to be believed of as he, she, or it.

LeBron (he) has actually scored thirty points so far.

Exercise 3

On a separate sheet of paper, complete the adhering to sentences through circling the correct form of the verbs to be, to have, and also to do in the three simple tenses.

Stefan constantly (do, does, will do) his taxes the day before they are due. Us (are, is, was) plan a surprised birthday party for my mother. Tortoise (have, had, has) the many beautiful fads on your shells. I constantly (do, did, will certainly do) my homework before dinner, so I have the right to eat in peace. Friend (is, are, was) so much smarter 보다 you think!

Perfect Verb Tenses

Up to this point, we have studied the three basic verb tenses—simple present, simple past, and an easy future. Now we will add three more tenses, i beg your pardon are dubbed perfect tenses. They are existing perfectVerb it s too dirty that define a continuing instance or miscellaneous that has just happened., previous perfectVerb tenses that describe a continuing instance in the past., and future perfectVerb tense supplied when anticipating completing an event in the future, however the occasion is no completed yet.. These are the three an easy tenses that English. A previous participleOften dubbed the -ed kind of the verb, that is formed by adding -d or -ed come the base kind of constant verbs. Is often referred to as the -ed kind of a verb since it is developed by including -d or -ed to the base type of constant verbs. Previous participles can likewise end in -t or -en. Keep in mind, however, the past participle is also formed in assorted other means for rarely often rare verbs. The past participle deserve to be supplied to type the current perfect tense.

Review the following an easy formula because that the present perfect tense:

Subject + has or have + past participle
I have helped

The existing perfect tense has actually a link with the past and the present.


Use the current perfect tense to explain a proceeding situation and also to explain an activity that has just happened.

I have worked as a caretaker because June.

This sentence tells us that the topic has operated as a caretaker in the past and also is still functioning as a caretaker in the present.

Dmitri has simply received an award from the Dean of Students.

This sentence tells united state that Dmitri has an extremely recently got the award. The word just emphasizes that the activity happened really recently.


The bus had left by the moment Theo arrived in ~ the station.

Notice the both actions occurred entirely in the past, but one action occurred prior to the other. At some time in the past, Theo arrived (simple past tense) at the station, but at part time prior to that, the bus had left (past perfect).


The future perfect tense defines an activity from the past in the future, as if the past event has already occurred. Usage the future perfect tense as soon as you guess completing an event in the future, yet you have actually not perfect it yet.

You will have actually forgotten me after girlfriend move to London.

Notice that both actions take place in the future, however one action will occur prior to the other. At some time in the future, the topic (you) will move (future tense) to London, and also at some time ~ that, the topic will have actually forgotten (future perfect tense) the speaker, me.

Exercise 4

On a different sheet the paper, finish the complying with sentences by making use of the correct perfect verb tense for the verb in parentheses.

I plan to start a compost bin because I ________ (to want) one because that a long time now. My brothers told me he ________ (to argue) with his friend about politics. By the time we reach the mountain top the sun ________ (to set). Denise ________ (to walk) several miles in the previous three hours. His mom ________ (to offer) to salary him to work in she office.

Progressive Verb Tenses

Progressive verb tensesVerb tense that explain a continuing or loose action. Explain a proceeding or loose action, such together I am going, i was going, or I will certainly be going.

The existing progressive tense describes an activity or state of being the takes place in the present and also that proceeds to take it place.

To make verbs in the existing progressive tense, incorporate these 2 parts:

You must use the current progressive it is too dirty to explain a plan activity, to explain an task that is recurring ideal now, and to describe an activity that is in progress, although not actually occurring at the time of speaking:

Preeti is starting institution on Tuesday.

This sentence defines a to plan activity.

Janetta is getting her this cleaned best now.

This sentence explains an activity that is emerging right now.

I am studying ballet at school.

This sentence explains an activity that is in progress yet not actually emerging at the time of speaking.

The past steady tense defines an action or state of being that took location in the past and that proceeds to take place.

To do verbs in the past progressive tense, combine these two parts:

You must use the past steady tense to explain a continuous action in the past, to explain a past task in progress while another activity occurred, or to explain two past activities in progress at the very same time:

Ella and also I were planning a vacation.

This sentence defines a continuous action in the past.

I was helping a customer as soon as I smelled delicious fried chicken.

This sentence defines a past activity in progress while another activity occurred.

While ns was finishing mine homework, my wife was talking top top the phone.

This sentence explains two past activities in development at the same time.

The future steady tense explains an activity or state of being that will certainly take ar in the future and that will continue to take place. The activity will have started at that future moment, yet it will certainly not have actually finished at that moment.

To do verbs in the future progressive tense, integrate these parts:

Use the future gradual tense to explain an task that will be in development in the future:

Samantha and I will be dancing in the college play following week. Tomorrow Agnes will be reading 2 of she poems.

Exercise 5

On a different sheet the paper, revise the adhering to sentences, composed in basic tenses, making use of the steady tenses shown in parentheses.

He ready the food while i watched. (past gradual tense) Jonathan will certainly speak at the conference. (future progressive) Josie traveled to Egypt last July. (past gradual tense) my foot aches, for this reason I understand it will rain. (present progressive tense) Micah will certainly talk a lot when I check out him. (future progressive) ns yawn a lot since I feeling tired. (present gradual tense)

Similar come the present perfect tense, the present perfect gradual tense is supplied to show an action that was started in the past and continues right into the present. However, the current perfect gradual is supplied when you want to stress and anxiety that the activity is ongoing.

To make verbs in the existing perfect steady tense, integrate the complying with parts:

She has been talking because that the critical hour.

This sentence suggests that she started talking in the past and also is proceeding to speak in the present.

I have to be feeling tired lately.

This sentence shows that I started feeling worn down in the past, and also I continue to feel worn down in the present. Instead of indicating time, together in the very first sentence, the 2nd sentence supplies the adverb lately. Friend can additionally use the adverb recently when using the current perfect steady tense.

Similar come the past perfect tense, the previous perfect gradual tense is offered to show an action that was started in the past and also continued until an additional time in the past. The past perfect gradual does not proceed into the present yet stops in ~ a designated moment in the past.

To do verbs in the previous perfect steady tense, incorporate the following parts:

The employee had been talking until their ceo arrived.

This sentence shows that the employee were talking in the past and also they stopped talking as soon as their ceo arrived, which likewise happened in the past.

I had been working every day.

This sentence suggests that I was working in the past. The action does not continue into the future, and also the sentence indicates that the subject quit working because that unstated reasons.

The future perfect progressive tense is seldom used. That is used to indicate an activity that will begin in the future and will proceed until another time in the future.

To make verbs in the future perfect progressive tense, integrate the adhering to parts:

By the end of the meeting, ns will have been hearing around mortgages and taxes for eight hours.

This sentence shows that in the future I will hear around mortgages and also taxes because that eight hours, yet it has not happened yet. It additionally indicates the action of hearing will proceed until the finish of the meeting, something the is additionally in the future.


A gerundA verb type ending in -ing the is provided as a noun, such together running, writing, or celebrating. Is a type of a verb the is provided as a noun. Every gerunds end in -ing. Due to the fact that gerunds role as nouns, castle occupy locations in a sentence the a noun would, such together the subject, direct object, and object the a preposition.

You deserve to use a gerund in the following ways:

As a subject

Traveling is Cynthia’s favorite pastime.

As a direct object

I gain jogging.

As one object of a proposition

The librarian scolded me for laughing.

Often verbs are adhered to by gerunds. Study Table 5.8 "Gerunds and Verbs" because that examples.

Table 5.8 Gerunds and also Verbs

Gerund Verb complied with by a Gerund
moving Denise considered moving come Paris.
cleaning I hate cleaning the bathroom.
winning Nate imagines winning one Oscar one day.
worrying Mom states she has stopped worrying.
taking She admitted taking the pumpkin.


An infinitiveA verb type that combines the word to v a verb, such together to buy, to go, or to gather. Is a form of a verb the comes after words to and acts together a noun, adjective, or adverb.

to + verb = infinitive

Examples the infinitives include to move, to sleep, to look, come throw, to read, and to sneeze.

Often verb are followed by infinitives. Examine Table 5.9 "Infinitives and Verbs" for examples.

Table 5.9 Infinitives and Verbs

prototype Verb adhered to by prototype
to help Jessica offered come help she move.
to arrive Mick expects come arrive early.
to win Sunita wants come win the composing contest.
to close He forgot to close the curtains.
to eat She likes to eat late.

You may wonder i beg your pardon verbs deserve to be adhered to by gerunds and which verbs have the right to be followed by infinitives. V the following verbs, you deserve to use either a gerund or an infinitive.

Table 5.10 Infinitives and also Gerunds Verbs

Base kind of Verb Sentences with Verbs complied with by Gerunds and Infinitives
begin 1. Man began crying.
2. John began to cry.
hate 1. Marie hated talking ~ above the phone.
2. Marie hated come talk on the phone.
forget 1. Wendell forgot paying the bills.
2. Wendell forgot to pay the bills.
like 1. I liked leaving messages.
2. I liked to leave messages.
continue 1. The continued listening come the news.
2. He continued to listen to the news.
start 1. Ns will start recycling immediately.
2. Ns will begin to recycle immediately.
try 1. Mikhail will shot climbing the tree.
2. Mikhail will try to climb the tree.
prefer 1. Ns prefer baking.
2. Ns prefer to bake.
love 1. Mockery loves diving.
2. Josh loves to dive.

Exercise 6

On your very own sheet the paper, finish the adhering to sentences by selecting the correct infinitive or gerund.

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I meant ________ (to kiss, kissing) my kids before they left because that school. The youngsters hoped (to go, going) come a restaurant for dinner. Do you intended ________ (to eat, eating) the whole pie? crystal postponed ________ (to obtain dressed, acquiring dressed) for the party. When we finish ________ (to play, playing) this game, we will certainly go home.

Key Takeaways

Verb tenses phone call the reader as soon as the action takes place. Actions might be in the past, present, or future. There room some irregular verbs in English the are developed in unique ways. The most common of this irregular verbs room the verbs to be, to have, and also to do. There space six key verb tense in English: simple present, simple past, simple future, present perfect, past perfect, and future perfect. Verbs deserve to be complied with by one of two people gerunds or infinitives.

Writing Application

Write about a lively occasion that is either remembered or imagined. Ask you yourself the following three questions: What happened during the event? What occurred after the event? feather back, what do you think the the event now? prize each inquiry in a separate paragraph to keep the present, past, and future tense verbs separate.