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You are watching: How are gametes different from other cells in the body

InformedHealth.org . Cologne, Germany: Institute because that Quality and Efficiency in Health care (IQWiG); 2006-.


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The development of sex cell is a main part of human being reproduction: In fertilization, an egg cell and also a sperm cabinet combine. This sex cell are additionally called reproductive cell or gametes. Sperm cells are produced in men"s testicles and also egg cells are produced in women"s ovaries. Sex cells are different from various other cells in one unique way: put simply, castle only have actually one fifty percent of the total amount of human hereditary information. As soon as a sperm cabinet fertilizes an egg cell, the result cell has actually a full collection of genetic information again.

Sex cell are created through a details kind that cell department called meiosis. Unequal in normal cell division (mitosis), the hereditary material the the initial (parent) cabinet is divided up twice.


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As in most other cells in the body, the nucleus of the initial cell includes the person"s full collection of genetic information. This information is save on computer in the form of lengthy threads (strands) of DNA – in the chromosomes.
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Before the original cell divides the first time, every one of the hereditary material is replicated: One copy is make of each chromosome.
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The DNA strands become more tightly packed right into a condensed form and have the right to be checked out under a microscope. Each chromosome and also its copy continue to be attached in one place.
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Unlike in “normal” cell department (mitosis), in meiosis the chromosome pairs first line up follow me the facility of the cell.
The pairs different there. The separation, personal, instance chromosomes then move to opposite sides of the cell, in addition to their attached copy. The cell membrane start pinching inward to form two different cells.
So the parental (original) cell provides rise to 4 sex cells. The cell core of every sex cabinet contains fifty percent of the original genetic material.
In women, only one of the four sex cell becomes one egg cell that can be fertilized. Throughout meiosis, the receives many of the cell human body of the parent cell. The three smaller cells – referred to as polar bodies – failure and disappear.

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A brand-new cell through a complete set of genetic information is created – one fifty percent is indigenous the mother, and also the other fifty percent is from the father. The fertilized egg cell can now start occurring into a baby.