1. Repeater – A repeater operates at the physics layer. Its job is come regenerate the signal end the very same network before the signal becomes also weak or corrupted so as to extend the length to i beg your pardon the signal have the right to be transmitted over the same network. Vital point to be noted about repeaters is that they perform not amplify the signal. As soon as the signal becomes weak, lock copy the signal bit by bit and regenerate it in ~ the initial strength. The is a 2 port device.

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2. Hub – A hub is usually a multiport repeater.A hub connects multiple wires comes from various branches, because that example, the connector in star topology i beg your pardon connects different stations. Hubs can not filter data, therefore data packets are sent to all linked devices. In other words, the collision domain of every hosts associated through Hub remains one. Also, they perform not have the knowledge to uncover out the ideal path for data packets which leads to inefficiencies and also wastage.
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Active Hub:- These are the hubs that have actually their very own power supply and also can clean, boost, and relay the signal in addition to the network. It offer both as a repeater and also a wiring center. This are provided to extend the best distance between nodes.Passive Hub :- These room the hubs that collection wiring native nodes and also power supply from the energetic hub. This hubs relay signal onto the network there is no cleaning and raising them and can’t be used to prolong the distance in between nodes.Intelligent Hub :- It works like active hubs and includes remote management capabilities. Castle also provide flexible data rates to network devices. It also enables an administrator to screen the web traffic passing with the hub and also to configure each harbor in the hub.3. Bridge – A leg operates at the data link layer. A bridge is a repeater, with include on the functionality of filtering content by reading the MAC addresses of resource and destination. It is additionally used because that interconnecting 2 LANs working on the exact same protocol. It has actually a single input and single output port, hence making it a 2 port device.Types of BridgesTransparent Bridges:- These room the leg in which the stations are fully unaware of thebridge’s existence i.e. Even if it is or not a leg is added or turned off from the network, reconfiguration ofthe station is unnecessary. This bridges make use of two processes i.e. Bridge forwarding and also bridge learning.Source Routing Bridges:- In these bridges, routing operation is carry out by the source station and also the framework specifies which route to follow. The hold can find the frame by sending a one-of-a-kind frame referred to as the exploration frame, i m sorry spreads v the whole network making use of all possible paths to the destination.4. Switch – A switch is a multiport bridge v a buffer and also a architecture that can an increase its efficiency(a large number that ports indicate less traffic) and performance. A switch is a data attach layer device.The switch have the right to perform error checking prior to forwarding data, which makes it very efficient together it does no forward packets that have actually errors and forward an excellent packets selectively to the correct harbor only. In various other words, the switch divides the collision domain the hosts, however broadcast domain stays the same.5. Routers – A router is a maker like a move that courses data packets based upon their IP addresses. The router is greatly a Network class device. Routers normally attach LANs and WANs together and have a dynamically update routing table based upon which they make decisions on routing the data packets. Router division broadcast domain names of hosts associated through it.6. Gateway – A gateway, together the surname suggests, is a passage to connect two networks together that may work upon various networking models. Lock basically occupational as the messenger agents the take data from one system, translate it, and also transfer that to one more system. Gateways are additionally called protocol converters and can operate at any kind of network layer. Gateways are normally more facility than switches or routers. Gateway is likewise called a protocol converter.7. Brouter – the is additionally known together the bridging router is a device that combines attributes of both bridge and router. It have the right to work one of two people at the data attach layer or a network layer. Functioning as a router, it is capable of routing packets across networks, and also working together the bridge, the is capable of filtering local area network traffic.8. NIC – NIC or network interface card is a network adapter that is used to affix the computer system to the network. The is installed in the computer to develop a LAN. It has actually a unique id the is written on the chip, and it has a connector to affix the cable to it. The cable acts together an interface between the computer and also router or modem. NIC map is a class 2 machine which way that it functions on both physical and data connect layer the the network model.

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References:Data Communications and NetworkingPlease write comments if you discover anything incorrect, or you want to share more information around the topic disputed above.