Elizabeth I and also English Patriotism

The reign of Elizabeth ns was significant by the repair of the good news Church of England and competition v a an effective Spain, both the which sustained a feeling of modern English nationwide identity.

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Key Takeaways

Key PointsElizabeth ns (1533–1603) was Queen of England and Ireland native 1558 until her death in 1603. She prospered her roman Catholic half-sister, Mary to the throne. Elizabeth never married nor had children and thus to be the critical monarch that the Tudor dynasty.Mary’s marriage to Philip II that Spain contributed to the complicated relations in between England and also Spain that after Mary’s death overcame Elizabeth’s reign in the realm of international relations.Elizabeth’s efforts led to the religious Settlement, a legal process by which the good news Church that England was revitalized and the queen took the title of supreme Governor the the Church of England.Elizabeth’s international policy was mostly defensive. While she regulated to develop diplomatic relationships with several of the most powerful modern empires and supported good news struggles throughout Europe, she greatest international policy difficulty was Catholic Spain and its Armada, over which England ultimately triumphed.Establishing the Roanoke swarm and chartering the eastern India firm during Elizabeth’s power was an beginning of what would certainly turn into the an effective British Empire.The Elizabethan age inspired national pride through timeless ideals, worldwide expansion, and naval triumph over the Spanish.Key TermsAnglo-Spanish War: one intermittent dispute (1585–1604) in between the kingdoms the Spain and England that was never ever formally declared. The war was punctuated by extensively separated battles, and began through England’s military exploration in 1585 come the Netherlands in support of the resistance the the says General to Spanish Habsburg rule.French Catholic League: A major participant in the French battles of Religion, created by Henry I, duke of Guise, in 1576. The intended the eradication the Protestants—also well-known as Calvinists or Huguenots—out the Catholic France during the protestant Reformation, as well as the instead of of King Henry III. Pope Sixtus V, Philip II of Spain, and the Jesuits were all pendant of this Catholic party.Religious Settlement: A legal process by which the protestant Church that England to be restored. It was made throughout the reign of Elizabeth i in solution to the spiritual divisions in England. Explained as “The change of 1559,” that was collection out in 2 acts the the parliament of England. The action of supremacy of 1558 re-established the Church the England’s independence from Rome, while the action of uniformity of 1559 outlined what form the English Church have to take.Spanish Armada: A Spanish fleet that 130 pearls that cruised from A Coruña in respectable 1588 v the objective of escorting an military from Flanders to invade England. The strategic aim was to overthrow Queen Elizabeth i of England and the Tudor facility of Protestantism in England.Roanoke Colony: A nest established top top Roanoke Island, in what is today’s dare County, phibìc Carolina, unified States. It to be a so late 16th-century attempt by Queen Elizabeth ns to create a permanent English settlement. The nest was started by sir Walter Raleigh. The homesteaders disappeared during the Anglo-Spanish War, three years after ~ the last shipment of provides from England.

Elizabeth ns of England

Elizabeth i (1533–1603) to be Queen the England and Ireland indigenous 1558 until her death in 1603. She was the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn, his second wife, who was enforcement two and a half years ~ Elizabeth’s birth. Anne’s marital relationship to Henry VIII to be annulled and also Elizabeth was asserted illegitimate. In 1558, Elizabeth flourished her roman inn Catholic half-sister, Mary. She never ever married nor had children and also thus was the last monarch the the Tudor dynasty.


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The “Darnley Portrait” of Elizabeth i of England, national Portrait collection (c. 1575)


The portrait was called after a ahead owner. Most likely painted indigenous life, it is the source of the challenge pattern called “The Mask the Youth,” which would certainly be used for authorized portraits of Elizabeth for years to come. Current research has presented the colors have actually faded. The oranges and browns would have actually been crimson red in Elizabeth’s time.

Mary I and also Philip II the Spain

In 1554, Queen mar of England married Philip, who just two year later began to rule Spain together Philip II. Under the terms of the Act for the Marriage, Philip to be to reap Mary I’s titles and honors for as long as their marriage should last, and also was come co-reign v his wife. Back Elizabeth initially demonstrated solidarity v her sister, the two were sharply divided along spiritual lines. Mary, a devout Catholic, was identified to like the protestant faith, in i beg your pardon Elizabeth had actually been educated. After mary married Philip, who saw the protection of Catholicism in Europe together his life’s mission, Mary’s popularity ebbed away, and many looked come Elizabeth as a emphasis for your opposition to Mary’s spiritual policies. In 1555, Elizabeth was recalled to court to to visit the final stages the Mary’s obvious pregnancy. Once it ended up being clear that mar was no pregnant, nobody believed any longer the she could have a child. Elizabeth’s sequence seemed assured.

King Philip acknowledged the new political reality and also cultivated his sister-in-law. She was a far better ally than the chief alternative, Mary, Queen of Scots, who had actually grown up in France and also was betrothed come the Dauphin that France. Once his wife fell ill in 1558, Philip consulted through Elizabeth. By October 1558, Elizabeth to be making plans for her government. On November 6, Mary recognized Elizabeth together her heir. Top top November 17, mar died and Elizabeth flourished to the throne.

Religious Settlement

In state of spiritual matters, Elizabeth to be pragmatic. She and her advisers recognized the threat of a Catholic crusade against England. Elizabeth because of this sought a Protestant equipment that would not offend Catholics too substantially while addressing the desire of English Protestants, however she would not pardon the much more radical Puritans, that were advertise for far-reaching reforms. As a result, the conference of 1559 started to legislate for a church based upon the Protestant negotiation of Edward VI, with the monarch as its head, but with many Catholic elements. Eventually, Elizabeth was compelled to accept the title of can be fried Governor that the Church the England rather than the much more contentious title of can be fried Head, which numerous thought i can not accept for a mrs to bear. The new Act of Supremacy came to be law in 1559. Every public officials to be to swear an oath of commitment to the monarch together the supreme governor or threat disqualification from office. The heresy laws were repealed to prevent a repeat the the persecution of dissenters practiced by Mary. At the same time, a new Act that Uniformity to be passed, which do attendance in ~ church and also the use of an adjusted version of the 1552 book of common Prayer compulsory, though penalties because that those who failed come conform were not extreme.

Foreign Policy

Elizabeth’s foreign policy was greatly defensive. The exemption was the English occupation the Le Havre from October 1562 to June 1563, which ended in failure once Elizabeth’s Huguenot (Protestant) allies joined through the Catholics to take back the port. After the occupation and loss of Le Havre, Elizabeth avoided military explorations on the continent till 1585, once she sent out an English military to aid the Protestant dutch rebels against Philip II. In December 1584, an alliance between Philip II and also the French Catholic organization undermined the capacity of Henry III the France to counter Spanish supremacy of the Netherlands. It also extended Spanish influence along the channel coast of France, wherein the Catholic organization was strong, and exposed England to invasion. The siege of Antwerp in the summer the 1585 by the duke of Parma necessitated some reaction ~ above the part of the English and also the Dutch. The outcome to be the contract of Nonsuch of respectable 1585, in i beg your pardon Elizabeth promised armed forces support come the Dutch. The treaty significant the beginning of the Anglo-Spanish War, which lasted until the treaty of London in 1604.

After Mary’s death, Philip II the Spain had no wish to sever his ties v England, and also sent a proposal of marital relationship to Elizabeth, but was denied. Because that manyyears, Philip preserved peace with England and also even protected Elizabeth indigenous the pope ‘s threat of excommunication. This to be a measure taken to keep a europe balance the power. Ultimately, Elizabeth allied England with the good news rebels in the Netherlands (which in ~ the time combated for freedom from Spain). Further, English ships began a policy of piracy against Spanish trade and threatened to plunder the an excellent Spanish treasure ships comes from the new world. However, the execution that Mary, Queen the Scots, in 1587 finished Philip’s wishes of place a Catholic on the English throne. That turned rather to an ext direct to plan to invade England, through vague plans come return the nation to Catholicism. In 1588 he sent out a fleet, the Spanish Armada, throughout the English Channel. The Spanish were required into a retreat, and also the overwhelming bulk of the Armada was damaged by the harsh weather.

Elizabeth likewise continued to keep the diplomatic connections with the Tsardom that Russia originally created by her deceased brother. During her rule, trade and also diplomatic relations occurred between England and the Barbary states as well. England established a trading partnership with Morocco in opposition come Spain, offering armor, ammunition, timber, and metal in exchange for Moroccan sugar, regardless of a papal ban. Diplomatic connections were likewise established with the Ottoman realm with the chartering of the Levant company and the dispatch of the very first English ambassador to the Porte, wilhelm Harborne, in 1578.

The onset of the british Empire

After the travel of Christopher Columbus electrified all of western Europe, England joined in the emigration of the new World. In 1562, Elizabeth sent out privateers Hawkins and Drake come seize booty native Spanish and also Portuguese ships off the coast of West Africa. Spain to be well established in the Americas, when Portugal, in union v Spain native 1580, had actually an ambitious global empire in Africa, Asia, and South America; France was exploring North America. England was engendered to produce its very own colonies, with focus on the West Indies fairly than in phibìc America. Native 1577 come 1580, teacher Francis Drake circumnavigated the globe. Linked with his daring raids against the Spanish and also his an excellent victory end them in ~ Cadiz in 1587, he came to be a famous hero, yet England did not follow up on his claims. In 1583, Humphrey Gilbert cruised to Newfoundland, acquisition possession that the harbor of St. John’s in addition to all soil within 2 hundred leagues to the north and also south of it. In 1584, the queen granted teacher Walter Raleigh a charter for the emigration of Virginia; that was named in her honor. Raleigh sent out others to found the Roanoke nest (it continues to be a an enig why the settlers there all disappeared). In 1600, the queen hired the east India Company. It created trading articles that in later on centuries progressed into british India, top top the coasts of what is now India and also Bangladesh. Larger-scale colonization started shortly ~ Elizabeth’s death.

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Nationalism

Elizabeth developed an English church that assisted shape a nationwide identity and also remains in location today. Though she followed a largely protective foreign policy, she reign increased England’s condition abroad. Under Elizabeth, the country gained a brand-new self-confidence and also sense the sovereignty, together Christendom fragmented. She to be the first Tudor to acknowledge that a monarch rule by renowned consent. She therefore always worked v parliament and also advisers she could trust come tell she the truth—a layout of federal government that she Stuart followers failed come follow. The symbol of Britannia was very first used in 1572, and often thereafter, to mark the Elizabethan age as a renaissance that influenced national proud through classic ideals, worldwide expansion, and also naval triumph over the Spanish.