1A 2A 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 8A
(1) (2) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18)
3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 1B 2B
(3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)
1

H

2.20

He

n.a.

You are watching: List the following elements in order of decreasing electronegativity.

2 Li

0.98

Be

1.57

B

2.04

C

2.55

N

3.04

O

3.44

F

3.98

Ne

n.a.

3 Na

0.93

Mg

1.31

Al

1.61

Si

1.90

P

2.19

S

2.58

Cl

3.16

Ar

n.a.

4 K

0.82

Ca

1.00

Sc

1.36

Ti

1.54

V

1.63

Cr

1.66

Mn

1.55

Fe

1.83

Co

1.88

Ni

1.91

Cu

1.90

Zn

1.65

Ga

1.81

Ge

2.01

As

2.18

Se

2.55

Br

2.96

Kr

3.00

5 Rb

0.82

Sr

0.95

Y

1.22

Zr

1.33

Nb

1.60

Mo

2.16

Tc

1.90

Ru

2.20

Rh

2.28

Pd

2.20

Ag

1.93

Cd

1.69

In

1.78

Sn

1.96

Sb

2.05

Te

2.10

I

2.66

Xe

2.60

6 Cs

0.79

Ba

0.89

La

1.10

Hf

1.30

Ta

1.50

W

2.36

Re

1.90

Os

2.20

Ir

2.20

Pt

2.28

Au

2.54

Hg

2.00

Tl

1.62

Pb

2.33

Bi

2.02

Po

2.00

At

2.20

Rn

n.a.

7 Fr

0.70

Ra

0.89

Ac

1.10

Rf

n.a.

Db

n.a.

Sg

n.a.

Bh

n.a.

Hs

n.a.

Mt

n.a.

Ds

n.a.

Rg

n.a.

Uub

n.a.

Uuq

n.a.

6 Ce

1.12

Pr

1.13

Nd

1.14

Pm

1.13

Sm

1.17

Eu

1.20

Gd

1.20

Tb

1.10

Dy

1.22

Ho

1.23

Er

1.24

Tm

1.25

Yb

1.10

Lu

1.27

7 Th

1.30

Pa

1.50

U

1.38

Np

1.36

Pu

1.28

Am

1.30

Cm

1.30

Bk

1.30

Cf

1.30

Es

1.30

Fm

1.30

Md

1.30

No

1.30

Lr

1.30


Electronegativities reported in Pauling units

Data bring away from john Emsley, The Elements, 3rd edition. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998.

Electronegativity refers to the capacity of an atom to lure shared electron in a covalent bond. The higher the value of the electronegativity, the an ext strongly that aspect attracts the shared electrons.

The ide of electronegativity was introduced by Linus Pauling in 1932; ~ above the Pauling scale, fluorine is assigned an electronegativity that 3.98, and the other aspects are scaled relative to that value. Other electronegativity scales incorporate the Mulliken scale, propose by Robert S. Mulliken in 1934, in i beg your pardon the an initial ionization energy and electron affinity room averaged together, and also the Allred-Rochow scale, which procedures the electrostatic attraction between the nucleus of an atom and its valence electrons.

Electronegativity varies in a predictable way across the routine table. Electronegativity rises from bottom to top in groups, and also increases native left come right across periods. Thus, fluorine is the most electronegative element, if francium is just one of the the very least electronegative.(Helium, neon, and also argon space not listed in the Pauling electronegativity scale, return in the Allred-Rochow scale, helium has the greatest electronegativity.) The trends are not an extremely smooth among the transition metals and also the inner change metals, but are fairly regular for the main group elements, and can be viewed in the charts below.

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The difference in electronegativity between two bonded elements determines what form of shortcut they will certainly form. When atoms with an electronegativity difference of higher than two units room joined together, the bond the is formed is one ionic bond, in i beg your pardon the more electronegative aspect has a an adverse charge, and the much less electronegative element has a hopeful charge. (As one analogy, you can think the it together a game of tug-of-war in i m sorry one team is strong enough to traction the rope far from the other team.) because that example, sodium has actually an electronegativity of 0.93 and chlorine has actually an electronegativity the 3.16, so when sodium and chlorine form an ionic bond, in i m sorry the chlorine take away an electron away from sodium, creating the salt cation, Na+, and the chloride anion, Cl-. Particular sodium and chloride ions are not "tied" together, however they attract each other very strong because of opposing charges, and form a solid crystal lattice.

When atoms with an electronegativity difference of less than two units are joined together, the bond that is developed is a covalent bond, in i beg your pardon the electron are shared by both atoms. When two the the exact same atom share electrons in a covalent bond, there is no electronegativity difference between them, and the electrons in the covalent shortcut are common equally — that is, over there is a symmetrical circulation of electrons in between the bonded atoms. These bonds room nonpolar covalent bonds. (As one analogy, you have the right to think of it as a game of tug-of-war between two equally strong teams, in i m sorry the rope doesn"t move.) for example, as soon as two chlorine atoms are joined by a covalent bond, the electrons spend just as lot time close to one chlorine atoms together they execute to the other, and also the resulting molecule is nonpolar:

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When the electronegativity distinction is in between 0 and 2, the an ext electronegative element attracts the shared much more strongly, yet not strongly enough to eliminate the electrons fully to kind an ionic compound. The electrons are mutual unequally — that is, over there is an unsymmetrical circulation of electrons in between the bonded atoms. This bonds are referred to as polar covalent bonds. The much more electronegative atom has a partial an adverse charge, d-, due to the fact that the electron spend more time closer to that atom, while the less electronegative atom has actually a partial confident charge, d+, because the electron are partially (but no completely) pulled far from the atom. For example, in the hydrogen chloride molecule, chlorine is much more electronegative than hydrogen by 0.96 electronegativity units. The mutual electrons spend much more time close to the chlorine atom, do the chlorine end of the molecule an extremely slightly negative (indicated in the figure below by the blue shaded region), if the hydrogen end of the molecule is really slightly hopeful (indicated by the red shaded region), and also the resulting molecule is polar:

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For molecule with more than one covalent bond, the three-dimensional form of the molecule and also how the polar bonds room oriented v respect to each other, determines even if it is or not the molecule is polar. This polarity of molecules plays a huge role in identify the physical properties of compounds.