element
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Substance that cannot be broken down into simpler chemical substances.

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AtomSmallest particle of an element that has all the characteristics of that element; basic building blocks of matter.
NucleusPositive charged center of an atom; contains neutrons, positively charged protons, and is surrounded by negatively charged electron clouds.
IsotopeAtoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus.
CompoundSubstance composed of two or more atoms of two or more different elements that are chemically combined.
Covalent BondChemical bond formed when two atoms combine by sharing electrons.
MoleculeGroup of atoms held together by covalent bonds; has no overall charge.
IonAtom or group of atoms that gains or loses electrons; has a positive or negative electrical charge.
Ionic BondChemical bond formed by the attractive forces between two ions of opposite charge.
MetabolismTotal of all chemical reactions that occur within an organism.
MixtureCombination of substances in which individual components do not combine chemically but retain their individual properties.
SolutionMixture in which one or more substances are distributed evenly in another substance.
pHMeasure of how acidic or basic a solution is; scale ranges from 0 to 14.
AcidAny substance that forms hydrogen ions in water and has a pH below 7.
BaseAny substance that forms hydroxide ions in water and has a pH above 7.
Polar MoleculeA molecule with an unequal distribution of charge, resulting in a positive end and a negative end.
Hydrogen BondWeak chemical bond formed by attraction of positively charged hydrogen atoms to other negatively charged atoms.
DiffusionNet, random movement of particles from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, eventually resulting in even distribution.
Dynamic EquilibriumResult of diffusion where there is continuous movement of particles but no overall change in concentration.
IsomerCompounds with the same simple formula but different three-dimensional structures, resulting in different physical and chemical properties.
PolymerLarge molecule formed when many smaller molecules bond together.
CarbohydrateOrganic compound used by cells to store and release energy; composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
LipidOrganic compounds commonly called fats and oils; insoluable in water; used by cells for long-term energy storage, insulation, and protective coatings.
ProteinLarge, complex polymer essential to all life composed of carbon, hydrgen, oxygen, nitrgen and sometimes sulfur: provides structure for tissuse and organs and helps carry out cell metabolism.
Amino acidsBasic building blocks of proteins.
Peptide bondCovalent bond linking amino acids.
EnzymeType of protein found in all living things that increasees the rate of chemical reactions.
Nucleic acidComplex macromolecules such as DNA and RNA, that store information in cells coded form.

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NucleotideSubunits of nucleic acid formed from a simple sugar, a nitrogen base, and a phosphate group.
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