This is a digitized version of an short article from The Times’s print archive, prior to the begin of online publication in 1996. To preserve these posts as they initially appeared, The time does not alter, modify or update them.

You are watching: On which idea did president eisenhower base his domino theory?


Occasionally the digitization process introduces warrior errors or other problems; us are proceeding to work to improve these archived versions.

WASHINGTON, march 26—Secretary of State Kissinger restated at his news conference today the classic domino theory, which links American defense in one place to American security everywhere else.

“We must recognize that tranquility is indivisible,” that said. “The United states cannot seek a plan of selective reliability. We cannot abandon friends in one component of the civilization without dangerous the defense of friend everywhere.”

News Analysis

In the very same vein, chairman Ford has actually recently expressed the idea that international reactions to breakthroughs in Indochina often tend to validate the domino theory. The judgment, however, is not common by administration foreign policy specialists, the American intelligence ar or countless foreign diplomats.

Interviews with management experts and also interviews carried out by brand-new York time correspondents overseas show that even in those few countries wherein leaders feel the American credibility has been rather impaired by congressional reluctance come provide an ext military help to Indochina, there space no signs of a basic reassessment of policy toward the unified States.


The results clearly indicate that international leaders gauge their relations with the United states by their own experience with Washington and also their own specific alternatives to managing Washington, and also not by occasions in Indochina.

President's dependability at Issue

In the unified States, the higher the management official gift interviewed, the more likely the is to subscribe to some form of the domino theory, although not by that name.

Yet, even among these high officials, the problem is no so lot the importance of Indochina and how that future relates to American security. To this officials, the real concern is the result of the battle between Congress and also the President. Come them, the actual domino is the prospect of a collapse abroad of Presidential reliability and predictability together a result of conference unwillingness to assistance Mr. Ford's policies.

Many members of congress feel the the resort to the domino photo by Mr. Ford, Secretary that State Kissinger and also Secretary of Defense James R. Schlesinger is merely a tactic to dramatize the issue, pressure Congress to assistance the administration policy and pin the blame on conference if Indochina drops into Communist hands.

Senator Edward M. Kennedy, Democrat the Massachusetts, said: “All of this theories are part of the initiative being do by the administration to intimidate Congress and the American civilization by extending up the failure of our national policy in Indochina. Why else would certainly the management use together rhetoric and ignore our straightforward obligation to end the violence in a instance where the policy deserve to only result in failure?”


Term offered by Eisenhower

The domino theory—the notion that a Communist win in Indochina would nearly Inevitably lead to Communist gains and also a weakening of the American place in the civilization —has a lengthy history. The hatchet “domino” in foreign policy was first made famous by president Dwight D. Eisenhower in April, 1954.

With French forces surrounded at Dien Bien Phu in the last phase that France's Indochina war, that said: “Finally, friend have more comprehensive considerations that can follow what girlfriend would contact the ‘falling domino’ principle. You have a row of dominoes collection up, girlfriend knock over the an initial one, and what will occur to the last one is the certainty that it will certainly go over really quickly. Therefore you can have a start of a fragmentation that would have actually the most profound influences.”

The roots of this heat of believed run ago to the socalled Truman doctrine of 1947, which noted a domino‐like rationale for providing aid to Greece and also Turkey to respond to Communist threats. Its branches ran right into the nineteen‐sixties, emphasize in 1963 by President man F. Kennedy's saying: “I believe it. I think it.” together the decade wore on, the image faded, and also was changed with high officials' making the public situation for helping south Vietnam in state of keeping the credibility of American commitments.

In recent weeks, Mr. Schlesinger and Mr. Kissinger have actually made public comments to the effect that the domino theory had actually been too many discredited. Critical week in Indiana, president Ford took this one step further.

Asked if he thought that Cambodia was “vital” come American security, the president answered, “I think it is.” the went on to refer to news reports around Thailand's asking for the withdrawal of American forces and the Philippines' reviewing its partnership with the joined States.

Threat to defense Seen

Then he said: “I think this potential breakthroughs to some degree tend come validate the socalled domino theory. And if we have one country after another, allies of the unified States, losing faith in our word, losing belief in our agreements through them, yes, ns think the an initial one to go could vitally influence the. National security of the unified States.”

Administration public representative say that the intelligence neighborhood has continuously rejected this analysis. According to this officials, intelligence reports proceed to say that the ns of Cambodia and also South Vietnam would have actually adverse and negative consequences because that American policy, but that even in the worst scenarios these aftermath would it is in controllable and manageable.


In Thailand, officials who were interviewed said that the Thais to be reluctant to sever their link with Washington totally because they did not check out anyone rather able to provide them with protection. Charunphan Issarangkun na Ayuthaya, that was international Minister till recently, claimed that the federal government was prepared to talk with any government, that arised from the conflict in Cambodia.

Administration experts said they had been aware of this Thai place for numerous weeks. They also said the the raising willingness the the Thais to attend to Communists in Indochina and also with China to be something the Washington had actually been encouraging for 4 years.

The experts explained that this progress had actually been speeded increase by advancements in Indochina, but said that they did not see the acceleration as damaging American interests. They stated they did not intend Thailand come ask formally for a finish withdrawal that American forces from her region in the next year or so.

With respect come the Philippines, these professionals said the there to be a couple of newspaper editorials questioning ties v the united States, but that there to be no proof from the Philippine federal government that any kind of of the leaders were contemplate ing a reassessment the policy.

Leaders in the Philippines were stated to view occasions in Indochina now as the foreseeable consequence of the American troop tap the money from Vietnam and of the detente with China and the Soviet Union the “followed.

The unwillingness of conference to vote much more aid for Indochina is checked out in the Philippines as an undefstandable reaction come the seemingly endless Indochina war. Management experts observed no sign that the Philippine federal government would questioning Washington to retract from Clark Air base or the Naval basic at Subic Bay, the two major United says installations in the country.

Reports from southern Korea, and also interviews with the management specialists shown a much more serious influence in Seoul, which has actually been heavily dependent on United states military and also economic support. However they reported that the south Koreans, close next-door neighbors of both China and also the Soviet Union, to be not likely to alter their plan of preserving close ties v the joined States.


Indonesia's international Minister, Adam Malik, cited the latest developments in Indochina in expressing doubts around the integrity of the united States, but American diplomats were said to feel the strains in relations between the two governments had currently been growing prior to the destruction of the situation in Vietnam and also Cambodia.

Interviews with officials in Japan, Australia and leading nations of west Europe showed no evidence of a rethinking of relationships with Washington. In fact, management area specialists proclaimed that many leaders in those countries applauded the prospect of the unified States finally moving toward total disengagement from Indochina.

In the middle East, the reactions room mixed, frequently confusing, yet generally more serious. Part Israeli officials said that congressional inaction on Indochina had to raise questions in their minds about a comparable future conference reaction on help to Israel. Much more specifically, these officials to express concern about whether Israel can put her to trust in any kind of American‐backed guarantee.

Worry around Kissinger

Other Israeli diplomats claimed that Indochina was not an problem for their country. What they worried about, castle said, was not the dependability of Congress but the motives of Mr. Kissinger. Support for Israel in conference still operation high.

From Cairo it to be reported the a top Egyptian official detailed what he called the decline of American power approximately the civilization as a an outcome of occasions in Vietnam, Cambodia and also Portugal, and added that “another failure” in the Middle east would include powerfully to that tendency.

See more: .66 As A Fraction In Simplest Form, What Is 66 As A Fraction

It is this sense that events in the human being are going against the joined States, coupled through what some call the “disarray” in Washington, that really problem high administration officials.

In private conversations, high management officials brush aside particular reactions in details countries at this time. Castle look, to more general and much more intangible effects. One high State room official, put it this way: “Others city hall the split between Congress and the President need to ask if the joined States has actually a foreign policy, and also are us calculable?”