Argentina is triangular in shape and stretches c.2,300 mi (3,700 km) native its large northern an ar near the Tropic of Capricorn come Tierra del Fuego, an island mutual with Chile, in the south. On the northeast, Argentina fronts ~ above the Río de la Plata (an estuary and one the the significant waterways that the western Hemisphere), which separates Argentina indigenous S Uruguay; that is tributaries also act as worldwide boundaries—the Uruguay River, through W Uruguay and also S Brazil, and also the Paraná, Paraguay, and also Pilcomayo rivers, with Paraguay. The northwest boundary with Bolivia lies in the Gran Chaco and also the Andes Mts. The west boundary through Chile adheres to the crestline the the Andes. The Atlantic Ocean borders Argentina on the east; there, turn off S Argentina, space the Falkland islands (Islas Malvinas), and the south Georgia, south Sandwich, and South Orkney islands, all dependencies of great Britain the are declared by Argentina.

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Argentina also claims a ar of Antarctica. The climate the Argentina different from subtropical in the phibìc to cold and windswept in the south, v temperate and dry areas found throughout much of the country. Precipitation, lowest along the E Andean slopes, boosts markedly N and also E throughout Argentina. The cook rivers that Argentina space the Paraná through its tributary, the Salado; the Colorado River; the Río Negro; and the Chubut.

Argentina might be divided into six geographical regions—the Paraná Plateau, the Gran Chaco, the Pampa (see under pampas), the Monte, Patagonia, and the Andes Mts. The Paraná Plateau in the extreme northeast is an expansion of the highlands that S Brazil. It is the wettest component of Argentina and also has a thick forest cover; tobacco, timber, and yerba maté room the chief products there. The spectacular Iguaçu falls are in a national park located at the allude where Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay meet.

In N Argentina the Gran Chaco, with the physiographically comparable Mesopotamia (between the Paraná and also Uruguay rivers), is a predominantly flat alluvial plain with a subtropical climate. The an ar is seasonally flooded, and also marshlands continue to be for long periods throughout the year due to the fact that of bad drainage. Livestock, cotton, and wood indigenous the quebracho tree room the key products.

South of the Gran Chaco is the Pampa, a vast, monotonous herbal grassland that extends to the Colorado flow (roughly from lat. 30°S come 40°S) and also is c.400 mi (640 km) wide from the Atlantic s to the Andean foothills. The Pampa"s deep, wealthy soil is the an easy wealth the the country. The Wet Pampa, the an ext humid eastern part of the region, is Argentina"s principal agricultural area and also produces many of the nation"s exports. The is the granary of southern America, with wheat, alfalfa, corn, and flax the principal crops. Livestock ranching is prevalent throughout the Pampa and also especially in the southeast and north; sheep are additionally raised there. Dairying is important in the vicinity the Buenos Aires. The Pampa has the densest transportation network of roads and railroads in south America.

Most the the primary cities of Argentina and most the its market are discovered in the region. Buenos Aires, a port city ~ above the Río de la Plata, is one of the biggest cities of south America and the chief commercial center and also transportation hub that S south America; that is surrounding by smaller commercial cities. Elsewhere on the Pampa are La Plata, a meatpacking and also oil-refining center; Rosario, the 3rd largest city of Argentina, an iron and also steel and also oil-refining center, and a large grain harbor on the Paraná River; Santa Fe, a north commercial and industrial facility at the junction that the Salado and Paraná rivers; Mar del Plata, a resort and fishing facility on the Atlantic Ocean; and Bahía Blanca, the largest Argentine port straight on the Atlantic Ocean, a gateway come the S Pampa and the oil fields of Neuquén prov., and also a meatpacking and also wool-processing center. On the west edge that the Pampa is Córdoba, the nation"s second largest city, which reflects the transition from the dry Pampa to the Monte, the desolate Andean foothills.

The Monte, an arid an ar in the rain shadow of the Andes, has natural vegetation differing from quick grasses in the east to cacti in the west. Scattered throughout the an excellent arid follow me are little but highly abundant oases such together Jujuy, Salta, Tucumán, san Juan, and Mendoza, i beg your pardon were cleared up from Peru and Upper Peru (Bolivia) in the second half of the 16th cent. The oases, who growth and importance substantially increased after castle were linked by rail to the eastern coast, create wine, sugar, fruits, and corn; stock increasing is also carried on there. The differed mineral shop of this an ar (especially oil, lead, zinc, tin, copper, and salt) are being exploited. Mendoza and also Tucumán are significant industrial locations engaged in food processing, oil refining, and also chemical production.

Occupying the southern component of Argentina is Patagonia, a vast, bleak, and windswept dissected plateau. Several large rivers circulation in deep valleys eastward throughout Patagonia come the sea. Sheep elevating (chiefly for wool) and also oil and natural gas production (the area roughly Comodoro Rivadavia is the cook oil-producing an ar of Argentina) room the principal economic tasks of Patagonia. The negative soils that Patagonia and its cool and also dry climate carry out not favor cultivation, back irrigated agriculture is exercised in the Negro and Colorado flow valleys. Patagonia is sparsely populated and also largely undeveloped, with a couple of small river-mouth harbor on the Atlantic coastline such as Viedma, Rawson, Puerto Deseado, and Río Gallegos. Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego, top top Canal Beagle, is the world"s most southern town.

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The Andes Mts. Region of Argentina, broad in the north, whereby it is similar to the Bolivian altiplano, and becoming narrower towards the south, extends follow me the size of Argentina"s west border. The region, which has some the the world"s highest possible elevations outside Asia—including Aconcagua (22,835 ft/6,960 m high; the highest suggest of the western hemisphere), Bonete, Tupungato, Mercedario, and also Llullaillaco—acts together a obstacle to the moist westerly winds, thus offering the east slopes that the Andes a desert condition that contrasts with the hefty snowfall top top the higher elevations. There room timber and mineral resources, however they are not easily exploitable since of the region"s inaccessibility. Cattle are raised on the grassy Andean foothills. There are plenty of beautiful lakes in the region, particularly where that merges through the Patagonian plateau; Lake Nahuel Huapí in Nahuel Huapí nationwide Park, adjoining the Chilean lake district, is one attractive resort area.