Hybridization was presented to describe molecular structure as soon as the valence bond concept failed to appropriately predict them. It is experimentally observed the bond angle in necessary compounds are close come 109o, 120o, or 180o. According to Valence shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory, electron pairs repel each other and also the bonds and also lone pairs roughly a central atom are generally separated by the largest possible angles.

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Carbon is a perfect instance showing thevalue ofhybrid orbitals. Carbon"s soil state configuration is:


According come Valence link Theory, carbon should kind two covalent bonds, causing a CH2, because it has two unpaired electrons in its digital configuration.However, experiments have displayed that (CH_2) is very reactive and cannot exist external of a reaction. Therefore, this does not define how CH4 can exist. To kind four bonds the construction of carbon must have four unpaired electrons.

One method CH4 deserve to be explainedis, the 2s and the 3 2p orbitals combine to make four, equal energy sp3 hybrid orbitals. The would offer us the following configuration:


Now that carbon has 4 unpaired electrons it deserve to have four equal power bonds.The hybridization of orbitals isfavored because hybridized orbitalsare much more directional which leader to higher overlap when creating bonds, as such the bonds formed are stronger. This results in an ext stable compounds as soon as hybridization occurs.

The next section will describe the various species of hybridization and also how each kind helps explain the framework of specific molecules.

sp3 hybridization

sp3 hybridization can describe the tetrahedral framework of molecules. In it, the 2s orbitals and also all three of the 2p orbitals hybridize to kind four sp3 orbitals, each consisting the 75% ns character and also 25% s character. The frontal lobes align us in the manner presented below. In this structure, electron repulsion is minimized.

Energy changes arising in hybridization



Hybridization of one s orbital v all three p orbitals (px , py, and pz) results in four sp3 hybrid orbitals. Sp3 hybrid orbitals space oriented at bond edge of 109.5o from each other. This 109.5o plan gives tetrahedral geometry (Figure 4).

Example: sp3 Hybridization in Methane

Because carbon plays together a far-ranging role in necessary snucongo.orgistry, we will certainly be utilizing it as an instance here. Carbon"s 2s and all 3 of the 2p orbitals hybridize to form four sp3 orbitals. These orbitals then bond with four hydrogen atoms with sp3-s orbit overlap, producing methane. The resulting form is tetrahedral, due to the fact that that minimizes electron repulsion.


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Hybridization of one s orbital through two p orbitals (px and also py) outcomes in three sp2 hybrid orbitals that space oriented in ~ 120o edge to each various other (Figure 3). Sp2 hybridization results in trigonal geometry.


Example: sp2 Hybridization in Ethene

Similar hybridization wake up in each carbon of ethene. For each carbon, one 2s orbital and two 2p orbitals hybridize to form three sp2 orbitals. These hybridized orbitals align themselves in the trigonal planar structure. Because that each carbon, two of this sp orbitals bond with two 1s hydrogen orbitals with s-sp orbit overlap. The continuing to be sp2 orbitals on each carbon are bonded with each other, developing a bond in between each carbon with sp2-sp2 orbital overlap. This pipeline us with the two p orbitals on every carbon that have actually a single carbon in them. This orbitals kind a ? bonds v p-p orbit overlap, developing a dual bond between the two carbons. Because a twin bond to be created, the as whole structure that the ethene compound is linear. However, the structure of every molecule in ethene, the two carbons, is tho trigonal planar.

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sp Hybridization

sp Hybridization can explain the linear structure in molecules. In it, the 2s orbital and one that the 2p orbitals hybridize to kind two sp orbitals, each consisting that 50% s and 50% p character. The former lobes confront away native each various other and type a straight line leave a 180° angle between the two orbitals. This formation minimizes electron repulsion. Due to the fact that only one ns orbital was used, we room left through two unaltered 2p orbitals that the atom have the right to use. These p orbitals are at best angles come one another and also to the line developed by the two sp orbitals.