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Indo-European languages in contemporary Eurasia
Approximate areas of Indo-European language in modern-day Eurasia.
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Modern English is analytic (i.e., relatively uninflected), vice versa, Proto-Indo-European, the genealogical tongue of most of the modern-day European language (e.g., German, French, Russian, Greek), was synthetic, or inflected. During the course of thousands of years, English words have been progressively simplified native the inflected change forms discovered in Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Russian, and German, toward invariable forms, together in Chinese and also Vietnamese. The German and also Chinese words because that the noun man space exemplary. German has 5 forms: Mann, Mannes, Manne, Männer, Männern. Chinese has one form: ren. English was standing in between, with 4 forms: man, man’s, men, men’s. In English, just nouns, pronoun (as in he, him, his), adjectives (as in big, bigger, biggest), and verbs space inflected. English is the just European language to rental uninflected adjectives; e.g., the tall man, the high woman, contrasted to Spanish el hombre alto and also la mujer alta. As for verbs, if the contemporary English word ride is compared with the equivalent words in Old English and modern-day German, it will certainly be discovered that English now has only 5 forms (ride, rides, rode, riding, ridden), conversely, Old English ridan had actually 13, and contemporary German reiten has 16.

In enhancement to the simplicity the inflections, English has two other basic characteristics: versatility of function and openness of vocabulary.


Flexibility of function has grown over the last 5 centuries together a consequence of the lose of inflections. Indigenous formerly identified as noun or verbs by differences in their develops are now often used together both nouns and also verbs. One have the right to speak, because that example, that planning a table or tabling a plan, booking a place or placing a book, lifting a thumb or thumbing a lift. In the various other Indo-European languages, personal from rarely exceptions in Scandinavian languages, nouns and also verbs are never ever identical since of the necessity of separate noun and verb endings. In English, creates for timeless pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs deserve to also function as nouns; adjectives and adverbs together verbs; and nouns, pronouns, and also adverbs as adjectives. One speaks in English that the Frankfurt publication Fair, yet in German one must add the suffix -er come the place-name and put attributive and also noun together as a compound, Frankfurter Buchmesse. In French one has actually no selection but to construct a phrase involving the use of 2 prepositions: Foire du Livre de Francfort. In English the is now feasible to employ a plural noun as adjunct (modifier), as in wages board and also sports editor; or also a conjunctional group, together in prices and incomes policy and parks and gardens committee. Any type of word course may alter its function in this way: the ins and outs (prepositions coming to be nouns), no buts (conjunction becoming noun).

Openness the vocabulary implies both totally free admission of native from other languages and the ready production of compounds and also derivatives. English by (without change) or it is adapted (with slim change) any type of word really required to name some brand-new object or to signify some brand-new process. Native from an ext than 350 languages have gone into English in this way. Prefer French, Spanish, and also Russian, English typically forms scientific terms from timeless Greek native elements. Back a german language in that is sounds and also grammar, the bulk of English vocabulary is in reality Romance or classic in origin.

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English own a device of orthography the does not always accurately reflect the together of words; see below Orthography.