Students will learn about food chains, pyramids, and also food webs. Student will likewise learn how all of nature is connected and also dependent on each other.

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A food chain shows how each living point gets the food. Some animals eat plants and some pets eat various other animals. For example, a an easy food chain web links the trees and also shrubs, the giraffes (that eat trees and also shrubs), and the lions (that eat the giraffes). Each attach in this chain is food for the following link. Every food chains begin with energy from the sun. This energy is caught by plants. For this reason the living component of a food chain always starts with plant life and ends through an animal.


tree are dubbed producers because they space able to usage light energy from the sun to produce food (sugar) indigenous carbon dioxide and water. Animals cannot do their own food so they should eat tree and/or various other animals. Castle are called consumers. There room three groups of consumers. Pets that eat just plants are referred to as herbivores (or main consumers). Pets that eat other pets are referred to as carnivores. Carnivores that eat herbivores space called second consumers, and carnivores the eat other carnivores are referred to as tertiary consumers. Animals and also people who eat both animals and plants are referred to as omnivores. Then there are decomposers (bacteria, fungi, and also even part worms), which feed on disc matter. These decomposers speed up the decaying process that releases mineral salts earlier into the food chain for absorption by plants together nutrients.

In a food chain, energy is passed indigenous one connect to another. As soon as a herbivore eats, just a fraction of the energy (that it gets from the plant food) becomes new body mass; the rest of the power is lost as garbage or offered up through the herbivore to bring out the life procedures (e.g., movement, digestion, reproduction). Therefore, as soon as the herbivore is consumed by a carnivore, that passes just a little amount of total energy (that it has actually received) to the carnivore. That the energy transferred indigenous the herbivore to the carnivore, some energy will it is in “wasted” or “used up” by the carnivore. The carnivore then has to eat numerous herbivores to acquire enough energy to grow. Because of the big amount of energy that is lost at each link, the quantity of power that is moved decreases every time. The more along the food chain friend go, the much less food (and thus energy) stays available.

Food chain can likewise be represented in various forms such together this pyramid.


The above energy pyramid shows many trees and also shrubs giving food and also energy come giraffes. Note that as we walk up, there space fewer giraffes 보다 trees and shrubs and also even under lions than giraffes. As we go additional along a food chain, there room fewer and fewer consumers. In various other words, a huge mass of living points at the basic is forced to support a few at the top. Countless herbivores are necessary to support a couple of carnivores. Many food chains have actually no more than 4 or 5 links. Over there cannot be too many links in a single food chain due to the fact that the pets at the finish of the chain would certainly not get enough food (and hence, energy) to stay alive.

Most pets are part of an ext than one food chain and also eat much more than one sort of food in order to fulfill their food and energy requirements. This interconnected food chains type a food web. Food chains can get complicated because animals usually eat a variety of food.

Food Chains

sufficient strips the colored paper so the each student has four, one on i m sorry to attract the sun, one on i m sorry to attract a producer, one on which to attract a major consumer and also one on i m sorry to draw a an additional consumer.

Food Web

blank cards colored pencils Yarn
an organism that eats largely meat Consumer: an organism, normally an animal, the feeds on plants or other animals Food chain: a sequence of organisms i ordered it in such a way that each feeds top top the organism listed below it in the chain and also serves as a resource of food because that the organism over Food web: all the associated or connected food chains within an ecological ar Herbivore: an organism the eats mostly plants Predator: an animal that lives by killing and eating other pets Producer: an organism, usually a plant, that converts sunlight energy into life material; typically the very first step top top the food chain or food internet or an initial trophic level of a food pyramid

Cut sufficient strips of file so that each student will have actually four. Reduced the yarn into pieces that will connect species that interact with every other.

Food Chains


top top the blackboard, write the adhering to headings: Producers, main Consumers, secondary Consumers, and Tertiary Consumers. Ask college student to surname some species under every heading. Then demonstrate how to develop a food chain, using some of the species listed.

as soon as students understand, have actually them draw the sun, a producer, a major consumer, a secondary consumer, and a tertiary consumer on each of their four strips.

These should then be interlocked and glued together to do a chain of varieties in which one eats the other. They deserve to be hung from the rafters to show the diversity of food chains that exist in nature.

Food Webs

Note: This task can be added for larger students.

Start similar to food chains, placing the three headings top top the board. Have actually students name types under every heading and also tell something around each species’ lifestyle. Then have each student choose a types from the board, write its surname on a card, and draw a snapshot of it. (Check every one off the list together it’s chosen, come make certain it’s only used once). Then the student should poke a hole near the bottom of the card.

start the food net by it is registered a picture of the sunlight at one side of the wall. (If you placed it ~ above a wall, it have the right to be saved). Have actually the college student who attracted producers carry their cards up. Cave these in a horizontal line alongside the sun and attach each one come the sun with a piece of yarn to present the connection. Then have actually students who drew primary consumers lug their cards up. Cave these in a horizontal line over the producers.


One at a time, comment on which producer they would certainly each consume. Affix yarn from every primary consumer to the producer it would consume. (Remember the most pets eat an ext than one type of food). The student will begin to check out how complex a food web is. Next include the second and tertiary consumer in rows over the producers. Again, comment on the connections between primary, secondary, and tertiary consumers. Next include the scavengers: hyenas (can it is in predators and also scavengers) and vultures. Finally, discuss decomposers—bacteria, fungi and worms that feed ~ above the disc matter—and their duty in the food web. Students have to now have a complete understanding of the complexity of the food web. At right is an instance of a food web.

All living things need energy to stay alive. This energy comes from the sun. Plants do their food from energy from the sun. Animals get their power from the food castle eat. Pets depend on various other living things for food. Some pets eat plants while others eat various other animals. This passing of power from the sunlight to plants to pets to other animals is referred to as a food chain.

execute you recognize why over there are more herbivores 보다 carnivores? how do humans fit in the food chain? What can happen if an animal not native to one area is brought into the local food chain? What might happen if you eliminate an animal from the food chain? How can sun and also rain affect the food chain? Drought? Why is a food web a much more accurate depiction of nature than a food chain or pyramid?

1. Internet of Life


college student will recognize the concept of a food chain and demonstrate a grassland’s food chain.


pictures of animals, river, tree, grass, sunlight A round of yarn/spool of line


review The good Kapok Tree, by Lynne Cherry. Ask student to surname all the different animals that space dependent on the one tree.

provide each participant a picture.

very first demonstrate a food chain, a an easy interdependence, by linking the student with the sun card (the resource of every energy) come the student through the grass card to the student v the zebra map to the student with the lion card.

display the impacts of guy on the basic food chain. Guy can:

cut trees (no trees, nothing for grazers come eat, grazers will die, lions and other predators will have actually nothing come eat. They will begin to eat ours livestock.) hunt in excess (If we kill the lions, there will be too numerous zebras and also they will need much more grass. They will certainly eat the grass from our pasturelands.)

Balance is key! define that the interaction in a grasslands system are more facility than this. For example, the sun gives for an ext than simply grass, and also lions don’t only eat zebras.

have actually the participants currently stand in a circle, out of order (i.e. Not all of the producers together, climate the major consumers, then the an additional consumers, etc.)

give the round of string to the human being with the sun. Then ask that person to pass the yarn come the human being with a map of one organism that the sun supports. If the sun supports an ext than one organism in the circle, happen the string back to the sun and from the sunlight to the various other organism the it supports.

continue by asking the tree which biology they have the right to support and so on.

store going with the chain till you gain to the height consumers. The string will certainly be a tangled net in the middle of the circle. Food chains space complicated, and the balance they create is essential.

Again comment on the results of male on the net by having actually students drop your string if man’s influence kills off their organism. For example, the influence of overhunting will cause the lions to drop your strings. What happens?

Possible questions

do you understand why there are an ext herbivores 보다 carnivores? What if one pet from the food chain disappeared? What about one level the the food chain? Producers? Decomposers? Herbivores? exactly how do human beings fit in the food chain? What might happen if an pet not aboriginal to one area is brought into the local food chain? What might happen if you remove an pet from the food chain? How can sun and rain impact the food chain? Drought? Why is a food internet a an ext accurate explicate of nature 보다 a food chain or pyramid?

2. Food Chain Tag

This task requires a big open area. In a course of 25 come 40 students, choose three to 5 to it is in predators and seven come ten to it is in plant-eaters. The remainder will be plants. This represents a balanced system where plants are more plentiful 보다 plant-eaters, plant-eaters more plentiful than predators, and predators room the the very least plentiful. The student can pick which plant-eaters and predators will be in their groups. (Example: Grevy’s zebras space plant-eaters and also lions are predators).

Each team selects hand-signals that will distinguish them native the various other groups. (Example: the plants may want to organize their hands the end to their sides to stand for leaves, the plant-eaters (oryx) may host their hands on the top to stand for horns, and the predators (lions) may host their hands up prefer paws through the claws showing). The predators try to tags the plant-eaters who try to tag the plants. Since predators decompose when they die and also become fertilizer, the plants try to sign the predators. When you are tagged, you revolve into whatever tagged you.

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after a period of time, protect against the game to see how plenty of plants, plant-eaters, and predators are left. Play should resume but should be quit a few times before the finish to recognize what has actually happened and why. After playing a few rounds that the game, select one the the tree to re-enter the game as a human. The rules for the person are different: the human deserve to tag anyone, however no one deserve to tag the human. Every time the person tags someone, that player becomes another human. See just how long it takes prior to all players have become adjusted into humans.

comment on the changes and relationships the the video game illustrates. Some inquiries for discussion can include:

What wake up to the plants and also plant-eaters if countless of the predators have been caught? What wake up to the tree if countless of them have been caught? What happens when people use too much of the food chain? How have the right to we save that indigenous happening?