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Fluorine is found in nature in the type of calcium fluoride, CaF2, called fluorite, which forms continuous crystals.

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Fluorine

Atomic Number: 9 Atomic Radius: 135 pm<8> pm (Van der Waals)
Atomic Symbol: F Melting Point: -219.67 °C
Atomic Weight: 19.00 Boiling Point: -188.11 °C
Electron Configuration: 2s22p5 Oxidation States: −1 ​(oxidizes oxygen)

History

From the Latin and French fluere: flow or flux. In 1529, Georigius Agricola defined the usage of fluorspar together a flux, and also as at an early stage as 1670 Schwandhard discovered that glass to be etched as soon as exposed to fluorspar treated with acid. Scheele and also many later on investigators, consisting of Davy, Gay-Lussac, Lavoisier, and Thenard, experimented with hydrofluoric acid, some experiments ending tragically.

The facet was ultimately isolated in 1866 by Moissan after almost 74 year of consistent effort.

Properties

Fluorine is the many electronegative and reactive of all elements. That is a pale yellow, corrosive gas, which reaction with many organic and inorganic substances. Finely divided metals, glass, ceramics, carbon, and also even water burn in fluorine with a bright flame.

Until world War II, there to be no commercial manufacturing of element fluorine. The nuclear bomb project and also nuclear energy applications, however, made it important to produce large quantities.

Uses

Fluorine and its compounds are supplied in developing uranium (from the hexafluoride) and much more than 100 commercial fluorochemicals, including numerous high-temperature plastics. Hydrofluoric acid etches glass of light bulbs. Fluorochlorohydrocarbons are generally used in waiting conditioning and refrigeration.

The existence of fluorine as a soluble fluoride in drink water come the level of 2 ppm may reason mottled enamel in this when supplied by youngsters acquiring irreversible teeth; in smaller sized amounts, however, fluoride helps stop dental cavities.

Elemental fluorine has been studied as a rocket propellant as it has actually an exceptionally high details impulse value.

Compounds

One hypothesis claims that fluorine can be substituted for hydrogen where it occurs in necessary compounds, which might lead come an huge number of new fluorine compounds. Compound of fluorine through rare gases have actually now been confirmed in fluorides that xenon, radon, and also krypton.

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Handling

Elemental fluorine and the fluoride ion are highly toxic. The totally free element has actually a properties pungent odor, detectable in concentrations as low as 20 ppb, i beg your pardon is below the safe working level. The recommended maximum allowable concentration because that a everyday 8-hour time-weighted exposure is 1 ppm.