Wood key chemical propertiesWood consists mainly of necessary substances (99% the the full mass). Elemental chemical composition of wood of various breeds is virtually the same. For sure dry hardwood on average consists of 49% that carbon, 44% that oxygen, 6% the hydrogen, 0.1-0.3% that nitrogen. When burning wood continues to be its inorganic part - ash. The ingredient of the ash consists of calcium, potassium, sodium, magnesium and other elements. The listed chemical elements form the an easy organic substances: cellulose, lignin and also hemicelluloses. Cellulose is a herbal polymer, a polysaccharide through a long chain molecule. The cellulose formula (C6H10O5) n, whereby n is the level of polymerization, is 6000-14000. This is a really persistent substance, insoluble in water and also ordinary necessary solvents (alcohol, ether, etc.), white. Beams the macromolecules of cellulose - the ideal fibers are dubbed microfibrils. They form the cell wall surface of the cell wall. Microfibrils space oriented mainly along the lengthy axis the the cell, in between them is lignin, hemocelluloses, and also water. Lignin is a polymer the an fragrant nature (polyphenol) of complex structure; contains more carbon and less oxygen than cellulose. The is with this substance the the process of lignification of the young cell wall is associated. Lignin is chemically unstable, conveniently oxidized, reacts with chlorine, dissolves once heated in alkalis, aqueous options of sulfuric acid and also its acid salts. Hemicellulose is a group of polysaccharides, which has pentosans (C5H8O4) n and hexosans (C6H10O5) n. At an initial glance, the hexo-form formula is similar to the cellulose formula. However, the level of polymerization in every hemicelluloses is much smaller and amounts to 60-200. This shows a shorter chain of molecules and also a lower resistance of these substances contrasted to cellulose.
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In enhancement to an easy organic substances, wood consists of a relatively small lot of extractive building material (tannins, resins, gums, pectins, fats, etc.) soluble in water, alcohol or ether. As raw materials, hardwood is consumed by 3 branches that the chemistry industry: pulp and paper, hydrolysis and wood chemistry industry. The pulp and record industry produces pulp for paper, cardboard and also a variety of cellulose products (cellulose derivatives), and also wood fiber boards. Based upon the high chemical stability of cellulose, by the activity of assorted agents, much less stable building material accompanying it are transferred to the solution. There are three teams of methods for the industrial production the cellulose: acidic, alkali and neutral. The choice of this or that an approach depends greatly on the rock composition that the processed lumber raw materials. The team of acidic methods include sulfite and bisulphite. In the sulphite process, the hardwood of little spruce conifers (spruce, fir) and also a variety of hardwoods is offered as a raw material. The bisulphite an approach makes it feasible to use timber of almost any sort for the production of cellulose. To the team of alkali techniques are sulphate and neutral. The many widely used sulfate method. Chopping is carried out in a systems of sodium hydroxide and also sodium sulphide. The sulphate method makes it possible to achieve stronger fibers. Advantages of this method include a much shorter duration the cooking, as well as the capability to bring out the procedure in a closed circuit (by regenerating the liquor), i m sorry reduces the risk of contamination of water bodies. In this way, more than half of the pulp produced in the world is produced, because it enables the usage of timber of any type of kind.
Neutral - a technique of obtaining cellulose from hardwood, in which the food preparation liquor consists of substances (monosulfites) having actually a reaction close come neutral. Derivatives that cellulose are widely used. In the communication of cellulose with remedies of caustic soda, nitric and also sulfuric mountain or acetic anhydride, man-made fabrics (staple, viscose and acetate silk), cord fiber for the produce of automobile and also aircraft tires, cellophane, celluloid, film and also photographic film, nitrocellulose, nitrocellulose and also other products. The communication of aqueous services of acids v wood leads to the hydrolysis that cellulose and hemicelluloses, which revolve into straightforward sugars (glucose, xylose, etc.). These sugars deserve to be based on chemical processing, obtaining xylitol, sorbitol and other products. However, the hydrolysis market is mostly oriented in the direction of the succeeding biochemical handling of sugars. The hydrolysis reaction wake up at a rather high temperature (150-190 ° C). Once the hydrolyzate (an aqueous equipment of simple sugars) is cooled, vapors room formed, from the condensate of which furfural is produced. It is supplied in the manufacturing of plastics, artificial fibers (nylon), resins, the to produce of medicines (furatsilina, etc.), dyes and also other products. With more processing of the hydrolyzate, fodder yeast, ethyl alcohol (ethanol), carbon dioxide space obtained. Ethanol is created only indigenous coniferous wood, offered as a solvent and, increasingly, together fuel. As soon as heating lumber without access to air, pyrolysis take away place. Together a an outcome of pyrolysis, coal, zizka (liquid) and also gases are formed. Charcoal, characterized by high sorption capacity, is used for cleaning commercial solutions, wastewater, in the manufacturing of sugar, in the smelting of non-ferrous metals, in the manufacture of medical preparations, semiconductors, electrodes and for numerous other purposes. Zizka is a solution of decomposition assets used in the production of antiseptics, phenols, acetic acids. The gases formed throughout pyrolysis of lumber are offered as fuel. In enhancement to low-quality wood, raw materials for the wood-chemical market are extractive substances. The extraction of resin (gum) from conifers is accomplished by way of a tap. To perform this, on the surface of the trunks of pine or cedar, a one-of-a-kind wound (carra) is used in the fall, from which the gum flows into the conical receiver. Gum handling is brought out in wood-chemical plants, where steam distillation the the volatile component - turpentine and also roast rosin bring away place. Turpentine is widely used as a solvent in the paint and also varnish sector for the production of synthetic camphor. Camphor is used in the production of cellulose, lacquers and film. Rosin is offered in the manufacturing of rubber, paper, nitrocellulose, electric insulating materials, etc. Tannins are offered for do leathers are acquired from bark the willow, spruce, larch, fir, and likewise from oak and chestnut wood.
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