Digestive device of frog: Anatomy and Physiology the digestion
Digestive mechanism of Frog: parts and also functionsDigestive system is composed of digestive tract or alimentary canal in addition to the linked digestive glands.
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Alimentary canal:Alimentary canal the frog is complete.It is long and also coiled tube. The tubes have actually varying diameter.It extends from mouth come cloaca.It consists of:Buccal cavityPharynxOesophagusStomachSmall intestineLarge intestineCloaca
1. Mouth:It is the beginning to the alimentary canal.Mouth is a very wide gap. That extends native one side of the snout to the other.Two bony jaws bound the mouth, and the jaws are covered by immovable lips.The upper jaw is fixed.The lower jaw is flexible i.e. It can move up and also down to close or open up the mouth.
2. Buccal cavity the frog:Mouth opens right into buccal cavity.Buccal cavity is large, wide and shallow.It has actually ciliated columnar epithelial lining that consists of mucous glands.These mucous glands secrete mucus that helps in lubricating the food.Frog lacks salient glands.Teeth:The lower jaw lacks teeth.However, teeth take place in a row of either next on the premaxillae and also maxillae skeletal of the top jaw. The teeth space backwardly pointed.Vomers (two small bones in the roof that the mouth) additionally consists that two groups of vomerine teeth.The role of teeth is to simply organize the prey and also prevent the from slipping out.Teeth space not supposed for chewing.The nature of teeth is homodont (similar), acrodont (not collection in a socket).But teeth space attached come the jaw bone through a large base do of a bone-like substance.The crown is the complimentary part that tooth.It is consisted of of dentine (a difficult ivory-like substance), i beg your pardon is traversed by numerous fine canals or canaliculi.Enamel consist of the pointer of the crown.Enamel is a an extremely hard, resistant and glistening substance.Tooth has a central pulp cavity open up at the side.It is filled through a soft nourishing pulp, containing connective tissues, blood vessels, nerve and odontoblast cells that produces new material for the expansion of tooth.Frog space polyphyodont in nature, i.e. Teeth is changed several time in life.Tongue:In frogs, tongue is large, muscular, sticky and also protrusible.It lies on the floor of mouth cavity.The anterior finish of tongue is attached come the inner border of lower jaw.The posterior finish is complimentary and bifid.This free end can be flicked out and retracted instantly after recording the prey.The slimy surface ar of tongue facilitates in catching the prey.The adjust of press in large sublingual lymph sac causes the protrusion of tongue.Internal nostrils:Just in former of vomerine teeth, the roof the buccal cavity consists of anteriorly, a pair of tiny openings of inner nares.By these inner nares, the nasal cavities open into buccal cavity.These serves in respiration.Bulging that orbits:The roof the buccal cavity reflects two large oval and also somewhat pale areas, behind the vomerine teeth. These locations are the bulging that eye balls.In food of swallowing the food, frog depresses the eyes.This reasons the orbits come bulge inwards which in an answer pushes the food in the direction of the pharynx.
3. Pharynx:Posteriorly, the buccal cavity reaches quick pharynx without any kind of clear demarcation.So, occasionally these space termed as solitary bucco-pharyngeal cavity.Several apertures open into pharynx.A median elevation top top the floor tote the glottis.Glottis is a longitudinal slit prefer aperture.The glottis leader to the laryngo-tracheal chamber.A large eustachian aperture is present on one of two people lateral next in the roof.This aperture opens right into the center ear.In masculine frogs, ~ above the floor that pharynx, the little opening of a vocal sac is current on one of two people side close to the angle of two jaws.Now, the pharynx tapers behind to lead to esophagus through the gullet.Gullet is the large opening the leads come Oesophagus.
4. Oesophagus:Oesophagus is a short, wide, muscular and highly distensible tube.Its mucous epithelial lining is folded longitudinally and also contains part mucous glands.During the i of food, its development is permitted by longitudinal foldings.An alkaline cradle juice is secreted by the glandular lining the oesophagus.Oesophagus enlarges to sign up with with stomach in the peritoneal cavity.
5. Stomach:Stomach is existing on the left next in the body cavity.It is attached come the dorsal bodywall by a mesentery termed together mesogaster.It is approximately 4 cm long, broad and slightly curved bag or tube through thick muscular walls.The anterior component is large, and broad. That is called as cardiac stomach.The posterior part is short and narrow. The is dubbed the pyloric stomach.Several significant longitudinal wrinkle are current in the inner surface of the stomach.It enables the distension that stomach as soon as food is received.Its mucous epithelium has multicellular gastric glands.These glands secrete the enzyme pepsinogen and also unicellular oxyntic glands, secreting hydrochloric acids.The pyloric end of stomach is slightly constricted.Pyloric valve security its opening into small intestine.Pyloric valve is a circular ring prefer sphincter muscle.Stomach serves because that storage and digestion that food.
6. Small intestine:Small intestine is a long, coiled and narrow tube.It is around 30cm long, and also is fastened mid-dorsally come bodywall through mesenteries.It comprises of 2 parts:A little anterior duodenumA much much longer posterior ileumBesides, intestinal glands, the mucosal lining the the little intestine is composed of two varieties of cells. Castle are:Goblet cells:Large cell containing oval vacuoles and granular substances which produces mucus.Near the basic of the cell, cell core is present.Absorbing cells:Small cells with nuclei near the base.Duodenum:Duodenum runs ahead gift parallel come stomach and also forms a shape prefer U.It receive a usual hepatopancreatic duct.Liver and pancreas bring bile and also pancreatic juice respectively.Low transverse wrinkle are formed by the interior mucous lining.Ileum:Ileum is the longest component of alimentary canal.Before enlarging posteriorly to sign up with rectum, it makes several loops.The internal mucus lining forms plenty of longitudinal folds.However, as in situation of higher vertebrates, there space no true villi and definite glands and also crypts.In the little intestine, cradle of food and absorption of spend food bring away place.
7. Large intestine or rectum:Large intestine is short, vast tube about 4cm long.It runs directly behind come open into cloaca by anus.The opening is guarded by one anal sphincter.The within lining of huge intestine forms plenty of low longitudinal folds.Itserves for the re-absorption of water and also the preparation and also storage the faeces.
8. Cloaca:It is the small terminal sac-like part.The anus and the urinogenital apertures open into cloaca.Cloaca opens to outside by the vent or cloacal aperture, lying at the hind end of body.
Digestive glands the frog:Keeping beside gastric glands and intestinal glands, two big glands that are linked with the alimentary canal of frog room the liver and the pancreas.Liver:The biggest gland in the body of vertebrate is the liver.It is reddish-brown in colour.It is multi-lobed gland and also lies close to the heart and lungs.3 lobes are present in the liver that frog i.e. Right, left and also median.Liver consists of innumerable polygonal cells the secretes bile.Bile is a greenish alkaline fluid.Bile is stored in the thin-walled sac dubbed as gall bladder.Gall bladder is large, spherical, and also greenish in color.A common bile duct is created when cystic ducts indigenous gall bladder and also hepatic ducts native liver lobes combines.It runs through pancreas and joins the pancreatic duct to type a hepatopancreatic duct.Now, it at some point opens right into duodenum.Bile lacks any digestive ferments and only emulsifies fats.Thus, liver is not a true cradle gland.
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Pancreas:Pancreas that frog is much branched, irregular flattened and is yellow in color.It lies in the mesentery in between stomach and duodenum.It carries out both exocrine and endocrine function.The endocrine part is created by scattered islets the Langerhans. That produces insulin hormone which is pertained to sugar metabolism.The exocrine part secretes pancreatic juice. This juice consists of of number of digestive enzymes.Since kidneys lacks independent duct, the pancreatic juice get the duodenum v the hepatopancreatic duct.