assignments --> Unit 3 part 4


shift Metals

groups with metalloids


Characteristics of group 17 of the routine table.

You are watching: What is the group number of the most nonmetallic group that contains metalloids?

· determine halogens.

· describe physical and also chemical properties of halogens.

· perform some offers of halogens.


You’ve probably seen halogen lights prefer the persons pictured here. Friend may even have halogen lights in your home. If friend do, friend may have noticed the they gain really hot and give turn off a lot of light for their size. A halogen light differs indigenous a consistent incandescent light pear in having a small amount that halogen gas within the bulb. The gas combine chemically through the steel in the filament, and this extend the life of the filament. It allows the desk lamp to acquire hotter and also give off much more light than a constant incandescent light without burning the end quickly. What is halogen gas, and also whichelementsare halogens? In this article, you’ll uncover out.  

Meet the Halogens

Halogensare highly reactive nonmetallicelementsin group 17 that the regular table. Together you deserve to see in the routine table displayed in theFigurebelow, the halogens include theelementsfluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), and astatine (At). All of them are fairly common on planet except for astatine. Astatine is radioactive and rapidly decays come other, more stable elements. Together a result, it is just one of the the very least common facets on Earth.


Q:Based on their place in the periodic table indigenous theFigureabove, how plenty of valenceelectronsdo friend think halogens have?

A:The number of valenceelectronsstarts in ~ one for elements in group 1. The then increases by one indigenous left come right across each duration (row) of the regular table for groups 1–2 and 13–18. Therefore, halogens have seven valence electrons.

Chemical nature of Halogens

The halogens are amongst the most reactive of all elements, return reactivity decreases from the top to the bottom of the halogen group. Since all halogens have actually seven valenceelectrons, they room “eager” to gain one an ext electron. Law so gives them a complete outerenergy level, which is the many stable arrangement of electrons. Halogens often integrate with alkalimetalsin group 1 the the routine table. Alkali metals have just one valence electron, i beg your pardon they are equally “eager” to donate. Reactions involving halogens, particularly halogens close to the peak of the group, may be explosive. You have the right to see some examples in the video at the URL below. (Warning:Don’t shot any of this reactions at home!)


Physical properties of Halogens

The halogen group is rather diverse. The includes elements that take place in three differentstates of matterat roomtemperature. Fluorine and chlorine aregases, bromine is a liquid, and also iodine and also astatine aresolids. Halogens also varyincolor, as you have the right to see in theFigurebelow. Fluorine and chlorine room green, bromine is red, and also iodine and astatine are practically black. Like other nonmetals, halogens cannot conduct electricity orheat. Compared with many other elements, halogens have relatively lowmeltingandboilingpoints. You can watch a laboratory demonstration that the melting and boiling clues of halogens at this URL:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yP0U5rGWqdg.


Uses the Halogens

Most halogens have actually a selection of important uses. A few are explained in theTablebelow.

A couple of Uses the Halogens




Fluorine helps avoid tooth decay, so it is included to toothpaste as the compound salt fluoride. You have the right to learn how it protects this at this URL:http://www.animated-teeth.com/tooth_decay/t4_tooth_decay_fluoride.htm.


Chlorine is the active ingredient in family bleach. It clears stains indigenous clothes. The can likewise be supplied to disinfect countertops and also other surfaces.


Bromine is used to purifywaterin swimming pools and hot tubs. It reacts with bacteria and also other germs and also renders lock harmless.


Iodine is added to alcohol and used as an antiseptic. It reacts v germs on cuts and wounds. Tiny amounts that iodine are additionally needed for good health. In the U.S., iodine is included to table salt to protect against iodine deficiencies. Walk the salt you usage contain iodine?

Q:Can friend relate several of these provides of halogens to the nature of this elements?

A:The capability of halogens to death germs and bleach clothes relates to their very reactive nature.


· Halogens are very reactive nonmetal aspects in team 17 of the routine table.

· Halogens includesolids,liquids, andgasesat roomtemperature, and they vary incolor.

· Halogens are amongst the many reactive of all elements. They have actually seven valence electrons, therefore they are very “eager” to gain one electron to have actually a complete outerenergy level.

· Halogens have actually a range of essential uses, together as preventing tooth decay and also killing germs.

Explore More

TheTablebelowgives themeltingandboilingpoints of halogens. Develop a graph through the data, and then define in native the patterns that you check out in her graph.

MeltingandBoilingPoints the Halogens


Melting allude (°C)

Boiling point (°C)

















1. What space halogens?

2. Why space halogens really reactive?

3. Explain the physical properties of halogens.

4. Why is chlorine included to swim poolwater?

Transition Metals

Characteristics of groups 3 - 12 the the regular table.

· identify transitionmetals.

· perform properties the transitionmetals.

· describe thelanthanides and actinides.


What do every one of the objects pictured over have in common? all of them room made totally or mostly of copper. Copper has actually an amazing selection of uses, including food preparation pots, plumbing pipes, roofing tiles, jewelry,musical instruments, and electric wires. Copper is a great choice for these and also many various other objects since of its properties. It have the right to be created into wires and also flat sheets, it’s a an excellent conductor ofheatand electricity, it’s hard and strong, and also it doesn’t corrode easily. In all these ways, copper is a typical transition metal.

What are TransitionMetals?

Transition metalsare every theelementsin teams 3–12 the the periodic table. In the routine table pictured inFigurebelow, they space theelementsshaded yellow, pink, and purple. The transition metals make up about 60 percent of all known elements. In enhancement to copper (Cu), fine known examples of transition metals incorporate iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), silver (Ag), and gold (Au) (Copper (Cu) is pictured in its various applications in the opening image). You have the right to explore particular transition steels with the interactive periodic table at this URL:http://www.ptable.com/.


Q:Transition metals have actually been referred to as the most typical of all metals. What carry out you think this means?

A:Unlike some other metals, transition metals have the properties that define the steels class. They are wonderful conductors the electricity, for example, and also they likewise have luster, malleability, and ductility. You can read much more about this properties of change metals below.

Properties of change Metals

Transition metals are premium conductors ofheatas well together electricity. They room malleable, which means they deserve to be shaped into sheets, and ductile, which means they can be shaped right into wires. They have highmeltingandboilingpoints, and all aresolidsat roomtemperature, other than for mercury (Hg), which is a liquid. Transition metals are also high in density and really hard. Most of them space white or silvery incolor, and they are usually lustrous, or shiny. Thecompoundsthat shift metals type with otherelementsare often an extremely colorful. You have the right to see several instances in theFigurebelow.


Some nature of change metals collection them apart from various other metals. Compared with the alkali metals in group 1 and the alkaline planet metals in group 2, the change metals are much much less reactive. Castle don’t react conveniently withwateror oxygen, which explains why lock resistcorrosion.

Other nature of the change metals space unique. They are the only facets that may useelectronsin the beside highest—as well as the highest—energy levelas valence electrons. Valence electrons space the electron that kind bonds with other aspects incompoundsand that normally determine the nature of elements. Transition metals space unusual in having very comparable properties even with different numbers that valence electrons. The shift metals additionally include the only facets that create a magnetic field. 3 of them have actually this property: stole (Fe), cobalt (Co), and also nickel (Ni).

Q:How is the number of valenceelectronstypically pertained to the properties of elements?

A:The variety of valenceelectronsusually determines exactly how reactive aspects are and the ways in i beg your pardon they react with other elements.

Those elements Down Under

Transition metals encompass the elements that room most often placed listed below the routine table (the pink- and purple-shaded aspects in theFigureabove). Those the follow lanthanum (La) are called lanthanides. They room all relatively reactive for transition metals. Those the follow actinium (Ac) are dubbed actinides. They are all radioactive. This method that they are unstable, so they decay into different, an ext stable elements. Many of the actinides execute not happen in nature however are make inlaboratories.


· shift metals are all the facets in groups 3–12 the the regular table. An ext than fifty percent of all facets are transition metals.

· shift metals are common metals, v properties such together a superior capability to conduct power andheat. They likewise have the metallic properties of luster, malleability, and also ductility. In addition, transition metals have highmeltingandboilingpoints and also high density.

· Thelanthanides and actinidesare the transition metals that space usually placed listed below the main component of the regular table. Lanthanides are fairly reactive for change metals, and also actinides room radioactive.

Explore More

At the adhering to URL, click on any type of two of the shift metals and read around their properties,atomic structure, discovery, and also uses. Then compose a paragraph comparing and also contrasting the two elements.



1. What are transition metals?

2. Describe properties of transition metals.

3. Just how do transition metals different from metals in groups 1 and 2? just how are they different from all other elements?

4. Recognize thelanthanides and also actinides.

Groups with Metalloids

Characteristics of groups 13 - 16 of the regular table.

· Identifyelementsin groups 13–16 the the routine table.

· list properties the a metalloid from every of these groups.


This photo represents a famous ancient Egyptian named Tutankhamen. Do you see his hefty eyeliner? Most most likely the eyeliner to be made of a mineral include antimony. This metalloid was commonly used because that makeup by Egyptians in between four and five thousand years ago. Today we recognize that antimony is toxic, return Tutankhamen probably didn’t know that. Antimony is uncovered in group 15 of the periodic table. Team 15 is one of 4 groups of the routine table that containmetalloids.  

Groups 13–16

Groups 13–16 of the regular table (orange in theFigurebelow) room the only groups that containelementsclassified asmetalloids. Unlike other groups of the routine table, i m sorry contain facets in simply one class, teams 13–16 contain facets in at least two different classes. In addition to metalloids, they additionally containmetals, nonmetals, or both. Teams 13–16 fall between the transition metals (in groups 3–12) and also the nonmetals calledhalogens(in group 17).


What AreMetalloids?

Metalloidsare the smallest course ofelements, containing simply six members: boron (B), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), and also tellurium (Te). Metalloids have some properties ofmetals(elements that have the right to conduct electricity) and also some nature of nonmetals (elements the cannot conduct electricity). For example, many metalloids can conduct electricity, however not and metals. Metalloids additionally tend to be shiny favor metals, yet brittle like nonmetals. Chemically, metalloids may behave like metals or nonmetals, depending upon their number of valenceelectrons. You can learn more about particular metalloids by clicking on the facet symbols in the periodic table in ~ this URL:http://www.chemicool.com/.

Q:Why does the chemical actions of an aspect depend on its variety of valenceelectrons?

A:Valenceelectronsare the electrons in one atom’s outerenergy levelthat may be affiliated inchemical reactionswith otheratoms.

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Group 13: Boron Group

Group 13 that the periodic table is likewise called the boron group since boron (B) is the first element in ~ the peak of the team (seeFigurebelow). Boron is likewise the just metalloid in this group. The other four aspects in the group—aluminum (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), and thallium (Tl)—are allmetals. Group 13 facets have 3 valence electrons and are reasonably reactive. Every one of them aresolidsat roomtemperature.