Search databaseBooksAll DatabasesAssemblyBiocollectionsBioProjectBioSampleBioSystemsBooksClinVarConserved DomainsdbGaPdbVarGeneGenomeGEO DataSetsGEO ProfilesGTRHomoloGeneIdentical Protein net CatalogNucleotideOMIMPMCPopSetProteinProtein ClustersProtein household ModelsPubChem BioAssayPubChem CompoundPubChem SubstancePubMedSNPSRAStructureTaxonomyToolKitToolKitAllToolKitBookgh Bookshelf. A company of the nationwide Library of Medicine, national Institutes that Health.

You are watching: What type of bonds hold nucleotides together

Griffiths AJF, müller JH, Suzuki DT, et al. An introduction to hereditary Analysis. 7th edition. Brand-new York: W. H. Freeman; 2000.

By covenant with the publisher, this book is available by the find feature, yet cannot it is in browsed.

1. Describe the varieties of chemical bonds and also forces of the DNA dual helix.

The DNA dual helix has two types of bonds, covalent and also hydrogen. Covalentbonds exist within each linear strand and also strongly shortcut bases, sugars, andphosphate groups (both within each component and between components). Hydrogenbonds exist between the 2 strands and kind between a base, indigenous one strand anda base from the 2nd strand in safety pairing. This hydrogen binding areindividually weak but collectively fairly strong.

2. Describe what is supposed by the terms conservative andsemiconservative replication.

3. What is intended by a primer, and also why space primers necessary for DNAreplication?

A primer is a brief segment the RNA the is synthesized by primase using the DNAas a template throughout DNA replication. After the primer has been synthesized, DNA polymerase climate adds DNA to the 3′ end of the RNA. Primers are compelled becausethe major DNA polymerase catalyzing DNA replication is can not to start DNAsynthesis and, rather, calls for a 3′ end. The RNA is subsequently eliminated andreplaced through DNA so the no gaps exist in the final product.

4. What room helicases and topoisomerases?

5. Why is DNA synthesis constant on one strand and also discontinuous on the oppositestrand?

Because the DNA polymerase is capable of adding brand-new nucleotides just at the 3′end of a DNA strand and because the two strands space antiparallel, at least twomolecules that DNA polymerase should take part in the replication of any specificregion the DNA. As soon as a an ar becomes single stranded, the two strands have anopposite orientation. Imagine a single-stranded region that operation from left toright. In ~ the left end, the 3′ finish of one strand points to the right, andsynthesis deserve to initiate and also continue towards the right finish of the region. Theother strand has a 5′ finish pointing toward the right, and also synthesis cannotinitiate and continue toward the right end of the single-stranded region at the5′ end. Instead, synthesis should initiate somewhere to the appropriate of the left endof the single-stranded an ar and move toward the left finish of the region. As thefirst strand proceeds synthesis (continuous synthesis), the single-strandedregion extends toward the right. This now leaves the 2nd strand unreplicatedin this brand-new region the single-strandedness, and there must be a 2nd initiationof DNA synthesis relocating from the current right finish of the single-stranded regiontoward the very first initiation point on that strand. This results in discontinuoussynthesis follow me that strand.

6. If thymine makes up 15 percent the the bases in a particular DNA molecule, whatpercentage of the bases is cytosine?

7. If the GC contents of a DNA molecule is 48 percent, what room the percentages ofthe 4 bases (A, T, G, and also C) in this molecule?

The frequency the both A and also T is (52%) = 26%.

8. E. Coli chromosomes in i m sorry every nitrogen atom is labeled(that is, every nitrogen atom is the heavy isotope 15N rather of thenormal isotope 14N) are allowed to replicate in an atmosphere inwhich all the nitrogen is 14N. Using a solid heat to stand for aheavy polynucleotide chain and also a dashed line for a light chain, sketch thefollowing:


The heavy parental chromosome and also the commodities of the an initial replicationafter carry to a 14N medium, assuming the the chromosomeis one DNA dual helix and that replication is semiconservative.


Repeat component a, yet assume that replication is conservative.


Repeat part a, however assume that the chromosome is in reality two side-by-sidedouble helices, each of i beg your pardon replicates semiconservatively.


Repeat part c, however assume that each side-by-side double helix replicatesconservatively and also that the as whole chromosomereplication is semiconservative.


Repeat component d, but assume that the as whole chromosome replication isconservative.


If the daughter chromosomes native the first division in 14N arespun in a cesium chloride (CsCl) density gradient and also a single band isobtained, which of possibilities in components a v e have the right to be rule out?Reconsider the Meselson-Stahl experiment: what go itprove?

9. R. Okazaki uncovered that the immediate products of DNA replication in E.coli incorporate single-stranded DNA fragments roughly 1000nucleotides in size after the newly synthesized DNA is extracted and also denatured(melted). Once he allowed DNA replication to proceed for a longer duration oftime, he found a lower frequency of these brief fragments and longsingle-stranded DNA chain after extraction and denaturation. Describe how thisresult can be concerned the truth that all recognized DNA polymerases synthesizeDNA only in a 5′ → 3′ direction.

See more: How Much Does A Pint Of Milk Weigh ? How Much Does A Milk Bottle Weigh

The results imply that the DNA is replicated in short segments the aresubsequently join by enzymatic action (DNA ligase). Since DNA replication isbidirectional, due to the fact that there space multiple points follow me the DNA whereby replicationis initiated, and also because DNA polymerases work only in a 5′ → 3′ direction, onestrand that the DNA is always in the dorn orientation for the enzyme. Thisrequires synthetic in fragments.

10. Once plant and also animal cell are offered pulses that <3H>thymidine atdifferent times throughout the cabinet cycle, heterochromatic regions on thechromosomes room invariably shown to be “late replicating.” deserve to you indicate what,if any, organic significance this observation can have?

11. Top top the planet of Rama, the DNA is of 6 nucleotide types: A, B, C, D, E, and F.A and also B are dubbed marzines, C and also D areorsines, and E and also F room pirines. Thefollowing rules are valid in every Raman DNAs: