The magnetic moment of a system measures the strength and also the direction of its magnetism. The term chin usually describes the magnetic dipole moment. Anything that is magnetic, prefer a bar magnet or a loop of electric current, has a magnetic moment. A magnetic moment is a vector quantity, with a magnitude and a direction. One electron has an electron magnetic dipole moment, created by the electron"s intrinsic spin property, making the an electrical charge in motion. Over there are plenty of different magnetic forms: consisting of paramagnetism, and diamagnetism, ferromagnetism, and also anti-ferromagnetism.

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Paramagnetism describes the magnetic state of an atom v one or much more unpaired electrons. The unpaired electrons room attracted by a magnetic field because of the electrons" magnetic dipole moments. Hund"s ascendancy states the electrons need to occupy every orbital singly before any orbital is double occupied. This may leave the atom with many unpaired electrons. Since unpaired electrons deserve to spin in one of two people direction, they display screen magnetic moments in any direction. This capacity allows paramagnetic atoms to be attractive to magnetic fields. Diatomic oxygen, (O_2) is a great example the paramagnetism (described via molecular orbital theory). The following video shows liquid oxygen attracted into a magnetic field created by a strong magnet:

Figure 2.7.1: As shown in the video, molecule oxygen ((O_2) is paramagnetic and also is attractive to the magnet. Incontrast, molecule nitrogen, (N_2), however, has no unpaired electrons and also it is diamagnetic (this principle is debated below); it is thus unaffected by the magnet.

There space some exceptions to the paramagnetism rule; these issue some change metals, in i beg your pardon the unpaired electron is no in a d-orbital. Instances of this metals encompass (Sc^3+), (Ti^4+), (Zn^2+), and (Cu^+). These steels are the not characterized as paramagnetic: castle are thought about diamagnetic because all d-electrons space paired. Paramagnetic compounds sometimes display bulk magnetic properties as result of the clustering the the metal atoms. This phenomenon is recognized as ferromagnetism, however this building is not disputed here.


Diamagnetic building material are identified by paired electrons—except in the previously-discussed instance of change metals, there space no unpaired electrons. According to the Pauli exemption Principle which claims that no two the same electrons may take increase the exact same quantum state in ~ the exact same time, the electron spins room oriented in opposite directions. This causes the magnetic fields of the electron to release out; for this reason there is no net magnetic moment, and the atom can not be attracted right into a magnetic field. In fact, diamagnetic substances are weakly repelled by a magnetic ar as demonstrated v the pyrolytic carbon sheet in figure 2.7.2.


How come tell if a substance is paramagnetic or diamagnetic

The magnetic type of a substance deserve to be determined by evaluating its electron configuration: if it reflects unpaired electrons, climate the substance is paramagnetic; if every electrons room paired, the substance is diamagnetic. This process can be damaged into four steps:

uncover the electron configuration draw the valence orbitals Look because that unpaired electrons determine whether the problem is paramagnetic or diamagnetic

Example 2.7.1: Chlorine Atoms

Step 1: find the electron configuration

For Cl atoms, the electron construction is 3s23p5

Step 2: attract the valence orbitals

Ignore the main point electrons and focus on the valence electrons only.


Step 3: Look because that unpaired electrons

There is one unpaired electron.

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Step 4: identify whether the substance is paramagnetic or diamagnetic

Since there is one unpaired electron, Cl atoms are paramagnetic (albeit, weakly).

Example 2.7.2: Zinc Atoms

Step 1: find the electron configuration

For Zn atoms, the electron configuration is 4s23d10

Step 2: attract the valence orbitals

which of the following ions or atoms possess paramagnetic properties ?