If a infant is born with a heart defect (congenital), the heart is not functioning properly, usually due to the fact that there is something not correct (defective) through the valves or the blood vessels around the heart. The defect deserve to keep blood from flow normally and also can affect heart development. This defects are occasionally treated with surgery.

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Overview

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The inside of the heart

How go a healthy heart work?

The heart is part of the circulatory system, i beg your pardon carries blood transparent the body. The heart is made of muscle and also works favor a pump to keep the blood moving through the blood ship (arteries, veins, and capillaries).

The heart has 4 chambers — the appropriate atrium and the left atrium (plural: atria) top top top and the right and left ventricles ~ above the bottom. The heart is divided by a solid wall surface called the septum right into 2 sides: the ideal side sends blood come the lungs to gain oxygen, if the left next of the love moves oxygen-rich blood come the remainder of the body with the aorta (the key artery in the heart).

Blood beginning the heart v the appropriate atrium and also moves to the best ventricle, wherein it then moves through the pulmonary artery come the lungs to pick up oxygen. The newly oxygenated blood climate enters the heart v the left atrium and moves to the left ventricle, whereby it is sent out through the aorta come the remainder of the body.

There are additionally 4 valves in the heart, i beg your pardon open and close to permit blood to move through the chambers:

The aortic valve, situated on the left next of the heart, in between the aorta and the left ventricle.The mitral valve, located between the left ventricle and also the left atrium.The pulmonary valve, situated on the right side that the heart in between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery (the blood vessel the carries blood come the lungs).The tricuspid valve, located on the ideal side of the heart between the right ventricle and also the appropriate atrium.

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The exterior the the heart.

Blood vessels—arteries, veins, and capillaries--are additionally involved in help blood flow:

The pulmonary artery moves blood indigenous the heart to the lungs, whereby it choose up oxygen.Pulmonary veins relocate blood from the lungs to the heart’s left side, whereby it deserve to be transported come the rest of the body.The aorta sends freshly oxygenated blood native the left next of the heart to the rest of the body.The inferior vena cava and also superior vena cava lug blood back to the heart to get new oxygen.The coronary arteries take it blood and also oxygen from the aorta come the heart muscle itself.

The word congenital means that a condition is present when a infant is born. If a infant is born with a heart defect, the heart is not working properly, usually due to the fact that there is something dorn (defective) with the valves or the blood vessels roughly the heart. The defect deserve to keep blood from flow normally and also can affect heart development. Congenital love defects have the right to be an easy or complex. There space 1 million adults and children in the United says who have actually congenital heart defects.

What are the common species of pediatric congenital heart defects?

Septal defects

A septal defect is a hole in the septum, the wall that divides the heart. There are 2 types of septal defects: atrial septal defects (ASDs) room holes in the septum in between the left and the appropriate atria; ventricular septal defects (VSDs) room holes in the septum in between the left and right ventricles. Therefore hole, oxygenated blood mixes through non-oxygenated blood.

A septal defect means that blood operation from one room of the heart to the other, rather of taking its normal path. Because that instance, v an atrial septal defect, blood operation from one atrium come the other, instead of going to the ventricle.

Similarly, through a VSD, the blood flows from the left ventricle to the right ventricle, rather than through its normal path to the aorta and the rest of the body. Together a result, blood that has picked increase oxygen native the lungs mixes v oxygen-poor blood. This deserve to mean that components of the human body aren’t getting enough oxygenated blood.

ASDs and also VSDs can be tiny or large. Some ASDs close up on their very own as the kid grows older. Others might be repaired utilizing catheters or with open heart surgery.

Although some small VSDs might close on their own, some room so big that the left side of the love is forced to work much harder. If that is not treated, a VSD have the right to lead to heart failure. This defects have to be repaired with open heart surgery.

Valve defects

Another form of defect involves the love valves. Defective valves may be brought about by:

Regurgitation: The valve does not close effectively and permits blood come leak backward.

Pulmonary valve stenosis is the most common valve defect. In this defect, the flaps the the pulmonary valve don’t work properly — they space too thick, or they end up being stiff, or even fuse together, making it daunting for the blood to relocate to the lung via the pulmonary artery.

Children who have a pulmonary valve stenosis may have a heart murmur, an rarely often rare sound heard during a heartbeat. Children who are born with a significant pulmonary valve stenosis may have such symptoms as fatigue, breath problems, and trouble eating.

Pulmonary valve stenosis may additionally be accompanied by various other defects, such together an ASD or patent ductus arteriosis (PDA). The ductus arteriosis is a blood vessel in the fetus that connects the aorta and the pulmonary artery. The ductus arteriosis generally closes within minutes or days of birth; if that does no close, it is dubbed a patent (open) ductus arteriosis (PDA).

A PDA lets oxygenated blood and also deoxygenated blood mix and puts press on lung arteries. In the event of particular heart defects, medical professionals might pick to store the PDA open until surgical treatment to correct various other blood circulation defects have the right to be done.

Stenosis have the right to also influence the aortic valve. If this valve cannot open or near properly, blood may leak or pool. This can increase pressure on the heart and also cause love damage. A balloon catheter procedure might be carry out in order to widen the valve and also increase the blood flow.

Other varieties of congenital heart defects

Complete atrioventricular canal defect (CAVC): The heart has a hole in all four chambers in the spot wherein the chambers would generally be divided. Symptoms may not show up until the baby is several weeks old; babies may have trouble breathing, eating, and growing. This defect deserve to be corrected v surgery.D-transposition that the great arteries: The positions of the pulmonary artery and the aorta are reversed. The blood flow to one of two people the body or the lungs is interrupted. Surgical procedure is required to deal with this problem.Ebstein’s anomaly: The tricuspid valve does not work as it need to and permits blood come leak earlier into the top chambers that the love from the reduced pumping chambers. This defect often occurs together with an ASD. Ebstein’s anomaly may be mild enough to never require surgery. In some cases, however, the may reason cyanosis (the skin turns blue due to the fact that of a lack of oxygen) or heart failure.Single ventricle defects: These include hypoplastic left love syndrome, pulmonary atresia/intact ventricular septum, and also tricuspid atresia:In pulmonary atresia, the pulmonary valve has end up being narrowed or blocked. Blood have the right to only gain to the lungs with openings that usually close together the baby gets older.

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Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection: The veins native the lungs connect to the heart in the dorn place and also let oxygenated blood into the wrong heart chamber. This defect requires open up heart surgery beforehand in infancy.