Introduction

There is a great difference in the penetrating powers because that alpha, beta, and gamma rays. That the three species of radiation, alpha particles are the most basic to stop. A sheet of record is all the is essential for the absorption of alpha rays. However, it may take a material with a greater thickness and density to prevent beta particles. Gamma rays have actually the many penetrating powers of all 3 radiation sources.

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Objective

The function of this experiment is to show the interactions of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation with matter.

Absorber/Shielding Set
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Materials

radiation sources:Po-210 (alpha source)Sr-90 (beta source)Co-60 (gamma source)Geiger counterrail trackerabsorber set

Procedure

Part A

Place alpha radiation source into feet on wooden block of rail tracker.Set digital Geiger respond to to x1 scale and turn power on. Permit the tool to warmth up for a few minutes.Record elevator activity.Arrange the polyethylene samples follow to thickness with the the very least thick first. Location the polyethylene in the special product holder top top the rail track. Move the Geiger counter and slider alongside the sample.Take three trial readings that radiation intensity because that each thickness of polyethylene and also record in Table 4.1. The time forced for every trial is 10 seconds. Due to the fact that of fluctuations through the meter, much better results are derived when count beats.Plot a graph for this activity: thickness vs. Variety of counts.

Part B

Replace the alpha resource with the Sr-90 (beta source).Check Geiger counter for x1 setting.Arrange the plastic and lead samples follow to thickness with the the very least thick first. Place the very first sample in the product holder. Move the Geiger respond to slider beside the sample.Take three trial readings the radiation intensity for each thickness of all samples and also record in Table 4.2. The time for counting number of beats is 10 seconds. Again, count the audible beats.Plot a graph because that this activity.

Part C

Replace the beta source with Co-60 (gamma source).Check x1 scale position on the Geiger counter.Arrange the lead samples follow to thickness with the the very least thick first. Ar the an initial lead sample in the product holder. Move the Geiger counter and also slider beside the sample.Take three trial readings the radiation intensity because that each thickness of every lead samples and also record in Table 4.3. The moment for counting number of beats is again 10 seconds. Mental to count the audible beats.Plot a graph because that this activity.

Data

Table 4.1:ALPHA RAYS-POLYETHYLENE

Background __________ cpmpo-210Thickness (inches)ScaleTrial 1Trial 2Trial 3Average
0.0040
0.0080
0.020
0.030
0.062
0.125
0.250

Table 4.2: BETA-POLY and LEAD

Background __________ cpm Sr-90

Thickness (inches)ScaleTrial 1Trial 2Trial 3Average
Polyethylene
0.0040
0.0080
0.020
0.030
0.062
0.125
0.250
Lead
0.032
0.062
0.125
0.250

Table 4.3: GAMMA RAYS-LEAD

Background __________ cpm Co-60

Thickness (inches)ScaleTrial 1Trial 2Trial 3Average
0.032
0.062
0.125
0.250

Questions

Why enable time for the Geiger counter to warm up?Is it crucial to take background readings every day? EXPLAIN.What type of results would you intend if the very same alpha sample was doubled in quantity?Is polyethylene an efficient shield because that beta radiation? Is lead? Explain.What outcomes would you watch if you supplied aluminum for shielding beta rays?From her graph, what thickness of lead is essential to absorb Sr-90 beta rays? because that Co-60 gamma rays?What materials, various other than lead, are reliable for shielding gamma radiation?What quantity of lead is essential to reduce gamma radiation come one-half of a previous intensity count?What basic statements can you make around the thickness of the absorbing material ~ above the count rates?

Going Further

If the thickness of wait is 1.3 mg/cc, then how long a pillar of air would be required to absorb beta rays in the resource Sr-90?How long would a column of air have to be to minimize the intensity of Co-60 gamma rays by a factor of 10? Explain.Make a graph comparing alpha, beta, and gamma radiation, including such info on charge, mass, penetration, speed, and energy.

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This record was developed by the nuclear Science department of the Lawrence Berkeley nationwide Laboratory.