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From biotechnology and digital media come sustainable energy and also cloud computing, virtually everything this particular day is in which method affected---and sometimes completely reshaped---by scientific and technological advances.

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By scientific research in this short article we median the natural and also engineering sciences (we therefore exclude pure mathematics and the social sciences). Thus, in this article, we focus on researchers in the biological, medical, and physical sciences as well as those pertained to with an innovation and particularly computers.

As a society, we have involved take the fruit of scientific research for granted, such as our use of computers, our accessibility to to run water and also electricity, and our dependence on various develops of transportation and also communication. Yet all such services follow indigenous the discoveries and inventions of researchers as they go after deep insights right into the workings of nature and its materials.

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This write-up focuses ~ above the 50 most prominent scientists alive today and their profound contributions to science. These are researchers who have actually invented the Internet and fiber optics, tested AIDS and cancer, developed brand-new drugs, and in basic made an essential advances in medicine, genetics, astronomy, ecology, physics, and computer programming.

In referring to the scientists on this list as “influential,” this post attempts come gauge their influence on science as such. In other words, the scientists noted here are prominent because of the groundbreaking scientific work they have actually done and its impact on the world.

Some scientists are enormously influential as popularizers or culture critics or public intellectuals. In this respect, figures like Richard Dawkins and Lawrence Krauss, or Carl Sagan and also Stephen Jay Gould a generation back, come to mind. The scientists on this list, however, space here because of their preeminence as scientists doing science.

The scientists defined here room all an innovative and brilliant. Numerous of them are also unusual and also interesting---colorful individualities that it would certainly be a pleasure to know!

As girlfriend feast top top the names and also biographies the the researchers on this list, likewise check out our short article \"The World\"s 50 Smartest Teenagers.\" few of the most prominent scientists later on will be drawn from this list.

Join united state this summer as 2 world-renowned thinkers, Rupert Sheldrake and Michael Shermer, discuss and also debate the nature the science! Enjoy!

Name field of affect Name ar of influence
1. Alain Aspect Quantum Theory 26. Martin Karplus Quantum Chemistry
2. David Baltimore Virology—HIV & Cancer 27. Donald Knuth Computer Programming
3. Allen Bard Electrochemistry 28. Robert point out II Computational Intelligence
4. Timothy Berners- Lee Computer science (WWW) 29. Craig Mello Molecular medication
5. Man Tyler Bonner Evolutionary Biology 30. Luc Montagnier Immunology—HIV
6. Dennis Bray Molecular Biology 31. Gordon Moore Physicist—Intel Corp.
7. Sydney Brenner Biology—Genetics 32. Kary Mullis DNA Chemist
8. Pierre Chambon Genetics & cellular Biology 33. C. Nüsslein- Volhard Developmental Biology
9. Simon Conway Morris Evolutionary Paleobiology 34. Seiji Ogawa fMRI Technology
10. Mildred Dresselhaus Carbon Science 35. Jeremiah Ostriker Astrophysics
11. Gerald M. Edelman Neuroscience 36. I get it Penrose Mathematics & Physics
12. Ronald Evans Molecular Genetics 37. Stanley Prusiner Neurodegeneration
13. Anthony Fauci Immunology—HIV 38. Henry F. Schaefer III Quantum Chemistry
14. Anthony Fire Genetics—RNAi 39. Cutting board Südhof Neurotransmission
15. Jean Fréchet Biotechnology 40. Jack Szostak Genetics
16. Margaret Geller Astronomy 41. James tour Nanotechnology
17. Woman Goodall Primatologist 42. Charles Townes Quantum Electronics
18. Alan Guth Inflationary Cosmology 43. Harold Varmus Oncology
19. Lene Vestergaard Hau Quantum Physics 44. Craig Venter Human Genetics
20. Stephen Hawking Physics & Cosmology 45. James Watson Molecular Biology—DNA
21. Peter Higgs Physics—Higgs Boson 46. Steven Weinberg Theoretical Physics
22. Leroy Hood Systems Biology 47. George Whitesides Chemistry—Spectroscopy
23. Eric Kandel Neuroscience 48. Edward Wilson Biology—Myrmecology
24. Andrew Knoll Paleontology 49. Edward Witten String Theory
25. Charles Kao Fiber Optics 50. Shinya Yamanaka Stem cabinet Research

1. Alain Aspect

Alain facet holds the Augustin Fresnel Chair in ~ the Institut d\"Optique and is likewise a Professor at the École Polytechnique, both in Paris. That is also a member that the French Academy that Sciences and the French Academy the Technologies. A graduate of the École Normale Supérieure de Cachan (ENS Cachan), facet passed the agrégation in physics in 1969 and also received his master\"s level from Université d\"Orsay.

In 2013, on the 100th anniversary the Niels Bohr\"s pioneering atom model, the Danish culture of Engineers, in teamwork with the Niels Bohr Institute and also the imperial Danish Academy the Sciences and also Letters, vested the Niels Bohr Medal to Aspect.

Aspect made his most vital breakthroughs in quantum theory. In 2005, he to be awarded the CSNR gold Medal by settling a 70-year-old dispute in between Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein over the simple understanding that quantum physics by demonstrating the fascinating phenomenon of entanglement (non-local instantaneous interactions between particles, i m sorry Einstein rejected because that propagating physical influences much faster than the speed of light). Aspect\"s job-related is foundational to the field of quantum computing.

Some that his best-known experiments confirmed that “quantum entanglement” for twinned photon pairs is irreconcilable through Einstein\"s worldview. These experiments measured 2 particles the were released at the exact same time and from the same resource in opposite directions. The results were conclusive proof of entanglement.

Aspect proceeds his experiments, i m sorry are fundamental to our understanding of how everything in the world is interconnected. He is at this time studying the localization of tide in solids utilizing ultra-cold atoms.

Web resource: Alain Aspect\"s home Page.Aspect is likewise featured in our article \"50 human being Who deserve a Nobel Prize.\"


2. David Baltimore

David Baltimore is right now Professor that Biology at the California academy of Technology, wherein he served as chairman from 1997 to 2006. He likewise serves as the director of the Joint facility for Translational Medicine, which joins Caltech and also UCLA in a program to translate an easy science discoveries into clinical realities.

Baltimore is a graduate that Swarthmore College and Rockefeller University. In 2004, Rockefeller University provided Baltimore one honorary doctor of Science.

In 1975, at the young age of 38, David Baltimore got the Nobel Prize, together with Howard Temin and Renato Dulbecco. They were awarded the prize for your discoveries concerning the interaction between tumor viruses and also the hereditary material that the cell. Among Baltimore\"s most significant contributions was in virology, because that his exploration of the protein reverse transcriptase, vital for the reproduction that retroviruses such together HIV.

In 1999, President invoice Clinton awarded Baltimore the nationwide Medal of scientific research for his prodigious contribute to science. The has had actually a profound influence on nationwide science policy, spanning every little thing from stem cell study to cloning to AIDS.

Baltimore is previous president and also chair of the American association of the advance of scientific research (2007--2009). He was recently called a other of the American Association because that Cancer study (AACR).

Baltimore has actually published 680 peer-reviewed articles. His current research concentrates on the manage of inflammatory and also immune responses, on the roles of microRNAs in the immune system, and the use of gene therapy approaches to treat HIV and cancer.

He is also a member of numerous scientific advisory boards, including the large Institute, Ragon Institute, Regulus Therapeutics, and Immune Design.

Web resource: David Baltimore\"s home Page.


3. Allen J. Bard

Allen J. Bard is a professor at the college of Texas, where he likewise serves together director that the center for Electrochemistry and also holds the Norman Hackerman-Welch Regents Chair. He obtained his Ph.D. Indigenous Harvard college in 1958.

In 2011, Bard was awarded the nationwide Medal of scientific research for his contributions in electrochemistry, including electroluminescence, semiconductor photo-electrochemistry, electro-analytical chemistry, and the invention of the scanning electrochemical microscope. His discovery of electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) has enabled the medical community to recognize the HIV virus and also analyze DNA.

Bard is taken into consideration the “father of modern-day electrochemistry.” In 2013, chairman Obama vested Bard with the national Medal that Science. Various other awards he has received incorporate the wolf Prize in Chemistry in 2008, the priestley Medal in 2002, and the other of American Academy the Arts and also Sciences in 1990.

He has actually published three books: Electrochemical Methods, with Larry Faulkner, Integrated chemical Systems, and Chemical Equilibrium. he has also published over 600 papers and also chapters, while editing and enhancing the collection Electroanalytical Chemistry (21 volumes) and the Encyclopedia the the Electrochemistry the the Elements (16 volumes). The is right now editor-in-chief the the Journal of the American chemical Society.

Bard\"s existing research concentrates on harnessing the strength of herbal sunlight to develop sustainable energy. His lab at the university of Texas tests different chemical link in the really hopes of learning a product that will lug out man-made photosynthesis. Bard feel strongly that such explorations must it is in sought and also made due to the fact that otherwise mankind will it is in in deep trouble as fossil fuels operation out.

Web resource: Allen J. Bard\"s residence Page.Bard is likewise featured in our article \"50 world Who deserve a Nobel Prize.\"


4. Timothy Berners-Lee

Timothy Berners-Lee is a computer scientist, ideal known together the inventor that the World large Web. He was honored as the \"Inventor that the World large Web\" during the 2012 Summer Olympics opening ceremony. In 2009, he was elected as a foreign associate that the joined States nationwide Academy the Sciences. And also in 2004, Berners-Lee was knighted through Queen Elizabeth II because that his pioneering work.

Berners-Lee i graduated from majesties College, Oxford. He functioned as an elevation contractor at the European company for Nuclear research (CERN) from June to December 1980. When there, that proposed making use of hypertext to facilitate sharing and updating information among researchers. Over a te later, he built the first website at CERN, and also it was very first put digital in respectable of 1991.

In November 2009, Berners-Lee launched the World vast Web structure “to handle the fundamental obstacles to realizing his vision of an open web available, usable, and valuable for everyone.” In 2013, the Alliance because that Affordable net was launched, and Berners-Lee is top the coalition of public and private organizations, including Google, Facebook, Intel, and also Microsoft.

In 2013, Berners-Lee was one of 5 Internet and Web pioneers forgive the inaugural Queen Elizabeth Prize for Engineering. The was also awarded an honorary doctor of Science level from the university of St. Andrews. And also in 2012, Berners-Lee to be inducted into the internet Hall of call by the internet Society.

Web resource: Timothy Berners-Lee\"s house Page.


5. Man Tyler Bonner

John Tyler Bonner is among the world\"s leading biologists, primarily known for his work in the use of cellular slime molds to recognize evolution. He has actually led the method in making Dictyostelium discoideum a model organism main to assessing some the the significant questions in experimental biology. That is the George M. Moffett Professor Emeritus of biology in the room of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology in ~ Princeton University.

Bonner studied at Harvard University. His Ph.D. Studies were interrupted through a stint in the unified States military Air Corps, for this reason he perfect his studies in an uncommonly short duration of time. He quickly joined the faculty the Princeton University. The holds three honorary doctorates and is a fellow of the American Association for the advancement of Science. He was made a nationwide Academy the Sciences other in 1973.

Some the his works include: The cellular Slime Molds, The advancement of society in Animals, Life Cycles, and also The ideas of Biology. Bonner\"s work says for the underappreciated function that randomness, or chance, plays in evolution. In one of his latest works, Randomness in Evolution, Bonner shows exactly how the effects of randomness differ for organisms of different sizes, and also how the smaller sized an biology is, the much more likely it is that morphological differences will be random and an option may no be connected to any far-ranging degree.

He additionally discusses just how sexual cycles vary depending on size and also complexity, and also how the tendency away native randomness in greater forms has even been reversed in part social organisms. Bonner\"s present research interests encompass experiments designed come understand just how this reversal is completed in a number of species that vary morphologically.

Web resource: John Tyler Bonner\"s house Page.


6. Dennis Bray

Dennis Bray is a professor emeritus in the room of Physiology, Development, and Neuroscience in ~ the university of Cambridge. He to be trained together a biochemist at MIT and a neurobiologist at Harvard clinical School prior to returning to the UK, where he had a long research career in the areas of nerve growth and also cell motility.

Bray has actually authored numerous textbooks top top molecular and cell biologic such as Molecular biologic of the Cell and cell Movements. His many recent book, Wetware, is for a general audience. In it, Bray taps the findings of the new discipline of systems biology to display that the internal chemistry of living cells constitutes a form of computation. In the book he suggests that the computational strength of cells offers the communication of all the distinctive properties of life systems, permitting organisms come embody in their internal structure photo of the world, which account for their adaptability, responsiveness, and also intelligence.

Bray obtained the Microsoft European scientific research Award for his work on chemotaxis in E. Coli. He provided detailed computer system simulations, bound to speculative data, come ask just how the macromolecular pathway managing cell motility in bacteria functions as an incorporated unit. His team found that the physical ar of molecular components within the molecular jungle of the cell interior is an important to understand their function.

Bray\"s many recent work contains the propagation that allosteric says in large multi-protein complexes. The has likewise recently published several an ext popular articles, including a donation to a 2012 Alan Turing centenary symposium in Nature entitled “Is the mind a an excellent Model for device Intelligence?,” as well as an essay licensed has been granted “Brain versus Machine” in the repertoire Singularity Hypotheses: A Scientific and Philosophical Assessment.

Web resource: Dennis Bray\"s residence Page.


7. Sydney Brenner

Sydney Brenner is a biologist and the winner the the 2002 Nobel compensation in Physiology or Medicine, mutual with H. Robert Horvitz and John Sulston. His significant contributions room in elucidating the hereditary code. Brenner is the senior Distinguished fellow of the Crick-Jacobs center at the Salk institute of biological Sciences.

Among his plenty of notable discoveries, Brenner established the visibility of messenger RNA and demonstrated exactly how the stimulate of amino acids in protein is determined. Beginning in 1965, he also began to command the pioneering occupational with the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, which eventually led to his Nobel Prize. In this research, that laid the groundwork to do C. Elegans---a small, transparent nematode (worm)---a significant model biology for study in genetics, neurobiology, and also developmental biology.

Brenner, together with George Pieczenik, created the very first computer matrix evaluation of nucleic acids utilizing the TRAC computer language, i beg your pardon Brenner proceeds to use. They went back to their early on work on deciphering the hereditary code with a speculative file on the beginning of protein synthesis, where constraints ~ above mRNA and tRNA co-evolved, allowing for a five-base communication with a flip of the anticodon loop, and thereby creating a triplet code translating system without inquiry a ribosome. This is the only published record in scientific background with 3 independent Nobel laureates collaborating together authors (the other two to be Francis Crick and also Aaron Klug).

Brenner has actually been forgive the foreign Associate that the nationwide Academy that Sciences, the Albert Lasker clinical Research award in 1971, and also ultimately the Nobel compensation in Physiology or medication in 2002.

Most recently, Brenner is examining vertebrate gene and also genome evolution. His work-related in this area has actually resulted in new ways of analyzing gene sequences, i m sorry have emerged into a new understanding that the evolution of vertebrates.

Web resource: Sydney Brenner\"s residence Page.


8. Pierre Chambon

Pierre Chambon is professor at the college of Strasbourg\"s institute for progressed Study, honorary professor at the Collège de France, and also emeritus professor at the Faculty of medication of the college of Strasbourg.

He is the founder and also former director of the Institute for Genetics and Cellular and Molecular biological (IGBMC), and also the founder and former manager of the Institut Clinique de la Souris (Clinical Institute because that the Mouse), in Strasbourg, France.

Chambon made significant contributions to the exploration of the superfamily of nuclear receptors, and to the elucidation of their universal device of action that web links transcription, physiology, and also pathology. These discoveries revolutionized the fields of development, endocrinology, and also metabolism, as well as their disorders, pointing to brand-new tactics for medicine discovery and also important new applications in biotechnology and contemporary medicine.

The author of much more than 900 publications, Chambon has been ranked fourth among the most prominent life scientists throughout the 1983--2002 period. Few of his awards encompass the Gairdner foundation International compensation in 2010 (for the elucidation of fundamental mechanisms of transcription in animal cells and also the discovery of the atom receptor superfamily), the Lasker simple Medical research study Award in 2004, and the march of Dimes prize in Developmental biological in 2003.

Chambon is a member that the Académie des scientific researches (France), the nationwide Academy of scientific researches (U.S.), and also the royal Swedish Academy the Sciences. He also serves ~ above a variety of editorial boards.

Chambon is also featured in our post \"50 civilization Who worthy a Nobel Prize.\"


9. Simon Conway Morris

Simon Conway Morris is Chair of evolutionary Palaeobiology in the planet Sciences room at Cambridge University. The is renowned for his work-related on the citizen Shale fossils. Conway Morris\"s views on the citizen Shale are reported in many technical papers, and also have to be recounted for a much more general audience in Stephen Jay Gould\"s Wonderful Life and also in Conway Morris\"s own book, The Crucible the Creation.

The citizen Shale Formation, located in the Canadian Rockies of british Columbia, is just one of the world\"s most fertile fossil fields, renowned for the impressive preservation the the soft parts of that fossils. At 505 million years old, it is one of the more quickly fossil bed containing soft-part imprints.

As a paleobiologist, Conway Morris is known for being a devout Christian, one who tries to display that the evidence from paleobiology and also evolution supports the presence of God. He is an increasingly energetic participant in discussions relating come science and also religion. That is energetic in the Faraday Institute for Science and also Religion and has lectured there on \"Evolution and also Fine-Tuning in Biology.\" In 2007, Conway Morris was invited to offer the prestigious Gifford Lectures at university of Edinburgh; lock were titled \"Darwin\"s Compass: How development Discovers the track of Creation.\" In these lectures Conway Morris makes several insurance claims that evolution is compatible with id in the existence of a God.

Some of his awards encompass Texas A&M\"s Trotter prize in 2007, the GSL Charles Lyell Medal in 1998, and the Paleontological Society\"s Charles Schuchert award in 1989. In recent years, Conway Morris has been researching evolutionary convergence---the phenomenon whereby unrelated groups of animals and plants develop similar adaptations---the main thesis of i beg your pardon is put forward in his renowned Life\"s Solution: Inevitable people in a Lonely Universe.

Web resource: Simon Conway Morris\"s home Page.


10. Mildred S. Dresselhaus

Mildred S. Dresselhaus is a professor of physics and electrical engineering, and also the Emerita academy Professor at MIT. Having actually attended Hunter college in brand-new York City as an undergraduate, she received a Fulbright Fellowship to to visit the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University. Dresselhaus obtained her master\"s degree at Radcliffe College and her Ph.D. At the university of Chicago.

Known together the \"queen of carbon science,” Dresselhaus started her MIT career at the Lincoln Laboratory. During that time she switched from research on superconductivity come magneto-optics, and also carried out a collection of experiment which caused a fundamental understanding of the digital structure of semi-metals, particularly graphite.

A leader in promoting avenues for females in science and also engineering, Dresselhaus received a Carnegie structure grant in 1973 to encourage women\"s examine of traditionally male-dominated fields, such together physics. She was additionally appointed to the Abby Rockefeller Mauze Chair, an Institute-wide chair, endowed to assistance the scholarship of women in science and engineering.

Some of she awards encompass the knife T. Compton Medal for management in Physics, the American academy of Physics in 2001, the Medal of success in Carbon scientific research and technology by the American Carbon society in 2001, and an Honorary Member of the Ioffe Institute, Russian Academy the Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia, in 2000.

In 2012, Dresselhaus was awarded the reputation Kavli Institute\"s prize in nanoscience. In 1990, she obtained the nationwide Medal of scientific research in acknowledgment of her work-related on digital properties that materials.

Web resource: Mildred S. Dresselhaus passed away February 20, 2017..


11. Gerald M. Edelman

Gerald M. Edelman is a biologist, immunologist, and neuroscientist. The is the founder and also director the the Neurosciences Institute, a non-profit research center that researches the biological bases of higher mind function in humans, and he is ~ above the scientific board of the human being Knowledge dialogue project.

Edleman received an MD from the university of Pennsylvania\"s school of Medicine. He mutual the 1972 Nobel compensation in Physiology or medicine for occupational with Rodney Robert Porter on the immune system. Their study uncovered the structure of antibody molecules and the deep connection in between how the contents of the immune device evolve over the life the the individual and also how the neural circuitry that the brain evolves over that exact same life.

The Karolinska Institutet lauded Edelman and also Porter\"s job-related as a major breakthrough, stating: “The affect of Edelman\"s and also Porter\"s discoveries is described by the fact that they provided a clear snapshot of the structure and mode of action of a group of biologically specifically important substances. By this lock laid a firm structure for important rational research, something that was previously lacking in immunology. Their discoveries represent plainly a break-through that immediately incited a fervent research activity the whole human being over, in all areas of immunological science, yielding outcomes of practical value for clinical diagnostics and also therapy.”

Edelman is listed for his theory of consciousness, which he has documented in several technical books, and also books created for a general audience, consisting of Bright Air, brilliant Fire, A world of Consciousness (with Giulio Tononi), Wider 보다 the Sky, and Second Nature: mind Science and also Human Knowledge.

Web resource: The Neurosciences Institute\"s house Page.


12. Ronald M. Evans

Ronald M. Evans is the in march of Dimes Chair in Molecular and Developmental Biology in ~ the Salk institute for organic Studies in san Diego. The is finest known for his work in the physiology and also the molecular genetics of muscle performance, metabolic disease, inflammation, and also cancer, and also for using this information to devise small-molecule therapy.

Evans got his Ph.D. From UCLA and conducted his postdoctoral training in ~ Rockefeller University. In enhancement to his work at the Salk Institute, Evans is a Howard Hughes medical Institute Investigator.

In 2004, he common the Albert Lasker simple Medical research Award with Pierre Chambon (#8 on our list) and also Elwood Jensen because that the discovery of the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors, and also for the elucidation of the unifying device that regulates embryonic development and diverse metabolic pathways.

Other awards he has received incorporate the wolf Prize in medication in 2012, the Albany Medical center Prize (shared v Solomon Snyder and Robert Lefkowitz) in 2012, the Harvey compensation in 2006, and also the Gairdner foundation International award in 2006, amongst numerous various other awards.

Other research of Evans focuses on a new hormone that shows up to be the molecular cause controlling the formation of fat cells. Identify this create represents among the newest and most important advancements in expertise problems occurring from obesity and also the potential treatment of adult onset kind II diabetes.

Web resource: Ronald M. Evans\"s home Page.Evans is also featured in our article \"50 people Who deserve a Nobel Prize.\"


13. Anthony S. Fauci

Anthony S. Fauci got his MD native Cornell University\"s clinical College. He is head of the Clinical Physiology Section and also chief that the activities of Immunoregulation at the nationwide Institute of Allergy and also Infectious illness (NIAID), a component of the nationwide Institutes of health (NIH).

Fauci has comprehensive research portfolio that includes used research come prevent, diagnose, and treat infectious and immune-mediated illnesses (including HIV/AIDS and also other sexually transmitted diseases), illnesses from potential agents of bioterrorism, tuberculosis, malaria, autoimmune disorders, asthma, and allergies. That is widely known for delineating the an exact mechanisms by which immunosuppressive agents modulate the human being immune response.

A 1985 Stanford college Arthritis center Survey the the American Rheumatism Association membership ranked the work-related of Dr. Fauci top top the treatment of polyarteritis nodosa and also Wegener\"s granulomatosis as one of the many important advances in patient management in rheumatology end the ahead 20 years.

Fauci has made seminal contributions to the knowledge of just how the AIDS virus destroys the body\"s defenses, causing its susceptibility to deadly infections, and he proceeds to devote lot of his research study time to identify the nature that the immunopathogenic mechanisms of HIV infection and the scope of the body\"s immune responses come the HIV retrovirus.

He is a member that the U.S. Nationwide Academy the Sciences, the American philosophical Society, the academy of medicine of the U.S. Nationwide Academy that Sciences, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Fauci has authored, co-authored, or edited more than 1,000 clinical publications and several textbooks.

Web resource: Anthony S. Fauci\"s home Page.


14. Andrew Z. Fire

Andrew Z. Fire is a scientist and professor of pathology and also genetics in ~ the Stanford University college of Medicine. Prior to his existing position, he to be on the faculty in the department of biology at Johns Hopkins University.

Fire conducted his graduate occupational in biology at MIT, and also then joined the medical Research the supervisory board (MRC) laboratory of molecule Biology in Cambridge, England. He climate joined the employee at the Carnegie institution in Baltimore, whereby he and also Craig C. Mello (#29 on our list) performed their 2006 Nobel prize winning research, which brought about the exploration of RNA interference (RNAi), a device for managing the flow of genetic information.

Nick Hastie, manager of the medical Research Council\"s Human genetics Unit, comment on the scope and also implications that Fire\"s research study by stating: \"It is really unusual because that a piece of occupational to completely revolutionize the whole means we think about biological processes and regulation, but this has opened up a whole new field in biology.”

Fire is a member the the nationwide Academy the Sciences and also the American Academy that Arts and Sciences. He likewise serves on the board of scientific Counselors and the National facility for Biotechnology, national Institutes the Health. He has won many awards consisting of the Wiley compensation in 2003, the nationwide Academy of scientific researches Award in molecular Biology in 2003, and the Meyenburg prize in 2002 indigenous the German Cancer study Center.

His recent research focuses on the molecular understanding of the RNAi machinery and also its functions in the cell, and also on the to know of other triggers and also mechanisms supplied in the recognition of, and response to, chemical information coming from exterior the cell.

Web resource: Andrew Z. Fire\"s residence Page.


15. Jean M.J. Fréchet

Jean M.J. Fréchet is a chemist and the Henry Rapoport Chair of necessary Chemistry in the room of chemistry in ~ the college of California, Berkeley. That is likewise the vice chairman of study at the King Abdullah college of science & modern technology in Saudi Arabia.

Fréchet holds end 70 U.S. Patents and also his research is performed in the areas of necessary synthesis, polymer chemistry, nanoscience, and nanotechnology, in i beg your pardon he has actually authored practically 800 articles, v a significant emphasis ~ above the design, an essential understanding, synthesis, and also applications of useful macromolecules.

Fréchet, that was born in France, has received countless awards, including the American Chemical culture Cope Scholar award in 2001, the American Chemical culture Award in Polymer Chemistry in 2000, and also the culture of Imaging Science and Technology\"s Kosar Memorial compensation in 1999, among others.

Fréchet is a member the the American chemistry Society, the national Academy of Sciences, the national Academy the Arts and Sciences, and also Academia Europaea. He additionally serves as the combine editor the the Journal that the American chemical Society.

Fréchet\"s present research concentrates on the basic and applied aspects of organic, polymer, and also materials chemistry. The has noted that most of his projects involve three stages: (1) design; (2) synthesis; and (3) characterization, where the function of the structure and properties room tested.

Web resource: Jean M.J. Fréchet\"s home Page.Fréchet is additionally featured in our short article \"50 people Who deserve a Nobel Prize.\"


16. Margaret J. Geller

Margaret J. Geller is an astrophysicist at the Harvard-Smithsonian facility for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts. She received her Ph.D. In physics native Princeton University and was one assistant professor the astronomy in ~ Harvard University.

She made pioneering maps the the large structures that the universe, which caused the discovery of the filamentous galactic superstructure popularly well-known as the \"Great Wall\"---the largest known superstructure in the universe. Geller has also developed innovative techniques for investigating the interior structure and total massive of clusters of galaxies and also the relationship of clusters to the large structure.

In addition, she is a co-discoverer the hypervelocity stars, stars ejected at high velocity native the Galactic center.These stars can travel throughout the Milky method and might be vital tracer that the matter circulation in the Galaxy

Geller\"s existing main research study interests incorporate a job she leads called the \"Smithsonian Hectospec Lensing Survey\" (SHELS), which supplies the phenomenon that gravitational lensing tomap the circulation of the mysterious, ubiquitous dark matter in the universe. She is also investigating the ramifications of the exploration of hypervelocity stars, as well as heading increase a project dubbed \"HectoMAP,\" which uses big databases of information to map swarm of galaxies, and which in turn aids united state in understanding just how these systems develop over the history of the universe.

Geller has actually made films about science. She eight-minute video, \"Where the Galaxies Are,\" created in 1989, was the first graphic voyage with the universe based on observation. The video was displayed at several major science museums, and graphics from it were widely broadcast. Later, a 40-minute film was produced that has prize-winning graphics, which room on display screen at the national Air and space Museum.

Geller is the receiver of numerous awards, consisting of the Julius Edgar Lilienfeld prize of the American Physical culture in 2013, the Henry Norris Russell Lectureship of the American Astronomical culture in 2010, the James Craig Watson Medal the the national Academy of scientific researches in 2010, and the Magellanic Premium that the American Philosophical society in 2008, amongst several others.

Web resource: Margaret J. Geller\"s residence Page.


17. Mrs Goodall

Jane Goodall is a primatologist, ethologist, and also anthropologist. She has studied the social and also family interaction of wild chimpanzees for end 40 years, and is thus taken into consideration the foremost experienced on chimpanzees. She studied at Darwin college in Cambridge and also holds numerous honorary doctorates from colleges such as Syracuse University, Rutgers University, the university of Liverpool, and also the university of Toronto, amongst others.

Goodall has conducted most of her research, starting in 1960 through no scientific training, at Gombe Stream nationwide Park, i m sorry is situated in the west Kigoma an ar of Tanzania, top top the east shore the Lake Tanganyika. Goodall advocates for chimpanzee welfare, the conservation of biodiversity, and general stewardship the the Earth. The research conducted by Goodall at Gombe currently not only is scientifically important but additionally benefits the park itself.

in 1977, Goodall started the woman Goodall Institute, as well as the youth-focused ecological group root & shoot in 1991. The latter has actually now grown to include over 800 regional chapters in virtually 90 countries around the world. She has additionally published numerous books about her occupational at the Gombe currently station, notably My Life with the Chimpanzees, In the shadow of Man (with Richard Wrangham), and, many recently, Jane Goodall: 50 years at Gombe.

One the Goodall\"s most notable awards was her appointment together Dame command of the Most terrific Order the the British realm (DBE), in 2004. Other remarkable awards encompass the Discovery and also Imagination award in 2005, the Benjamin Franklin Medal in Life science in 2003, the Harvard clinical School\"s facility for Health and the global Environment compensation in 2003, and also the man & Alice Tyler Prize because that Environmental success in 1997, among numerous various other awards for her work and also dedication.

Today, Goodall devotes virtually all of her time to advocacy on behalf of chimpanzees and also the environment, traveling nearly 300 work a year. Goodall is also a board member for save the Chimps located in ft Pierce, Florida. That is the world\"s biggest chimpanzee sanctuary external of Africa.

Web resource: The mrs Goodall Institute.


18. Alan Guth

Alan Guth is a theoretical physicist and also cosmologist, who currently serves as the Victor Weisskopf Professor of Physics at the Massachusetts academy of Technology.

Guth is the originator that the inflationary cosmology, a theory of the universe that answer the conundrum make by the huge Bang that why the universe shows up flat, homogeneous, and also isotropic, when one would expect (on the basis of the physics of the big Bang) a highly curved, heterogeneous, and also anisotropic universe. His theory, if correct, would explain the beginning of the massive structure that the cosmos.

Guth\"s an initial step to emerging his theory of inflation developed at Cornell in 1978, when he attend a lecture by Robert Dicke around the flatness trouble of the universe. Dicke described how the flatness trouble showed the something significant was lacking from the large Bang concept at the time. Guth very first made windy his concepts on inflation at a seminar in 1980 after he it is registered his paper, titled \"The Inflationary Universe: A possible Solution come the Horizon and Flatness Problems,\" to the journal Physical Review.

In 1997, Guth writer the book The Inflationary Universe: The quest for a brand-new Theory that Cosmic Origins. In 2012, he to be awarded the fundamental Physics Prize.

Much the Guth\"s current work involves the thickness fluctuations occurring from inflation, such as the effects of novel creates of inflation and whether the basic theory can be made an ext rigorous. Guth is likewise interested in follow the possibility of inflation in \"brane world\" models, i m sorry propose the our universe is a four-dimensional membrane floating in a higher-dimensional space.

Web resource: Alan Guth\"s residence Page.Guth is additionally featured in our short article \"50 civilization Who worthy a Nobel Prize.\"


19. Lene Vestergaard Hau

Lene Vestergaard Hau is the Mallinckrodt Professor that Physics and also Applied Physics in ~ Harvard University. Among her well-known accomplishments is utilizing a superfluid to sluggish a beam of light to a standstill. This work led to additional experiments on the transfer of light to matter, then from matter back into light, i m sorry led to necessary implications for quantum encryption and also quantum computing.

Hau and her associates at Harvard University have actually demonstrated exquisite manage over light and also matter in numerous experiments, but her experiment with two condensates is among the most compelling. In 2006, they properly transferred a qubit from light to a issue wave and back into light, utilizing Bose-Einstein condensates. When the issue is traveling in between the two Bose-Einstein condensates, it can be trapped for minutes, climate reshaped into something else. This novel type of quantum control has implications for the emerging fields of quantum details processing and quantum cryptography.

During her doctoral researches in quantum concept at the college of Aarhus in Denmark, Hau worked on ideas similar to those involved in fiber optic cables delivering light, yet her work affiliated strings of atoms in a silicon crystal delivering electrons.

Hau\"s latest study has continued to be focused on cold atoms and Bose-Einstein condensates. Her team uses laser cooling to efficiently precool atom to temperature in the micro-kelvin range. Recently, the Hau team succeeded in to reduce the light speed---initially come 17 meters per second, and later to almost zero m.p.s.---by optically inducing quantum interference in a Bose-Einstein condensate.

Ultra-slow irradiate creates a unique brand-new tool for probing the an essential properties of Bose-Einstein condensates.

Web resource: Lene Vestergaard Hau\"s residence Page.Hau is also featured in our short article \"50 human being Who worthy a Nobel Prize.\"


20. Stephen Hawking

Stephen Hawking is a theoretical physicist and cosmologist. He is the director of research study at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology in ~ Cambridge and also former Lucasian Professor the Mathematics.

Hawking is recognized for his occupational on gravitational singularity theorems in the framework of basic relativity, and also the theoretical forecast that black holes emit radiation, often called \"Hawking radiation.\"

Hawking to visit Oxford college as an undergraduate, and then Cambridge university for his graduate studies. When Hawking began his graduate studies, there to be much dispute in the physics community around the prevailing theories of the development of the universe. Influenced by roger Penrose\"s theorem of a spacetime selfhood in the facility of black color holes, Hawking applied the same thinking to the entire universe, and also during 1965 he created his thesis on this topic. The thesis made a seminal donation to big Bang cosmology.

He has authored several well-known science publications on cosmology, consisting of A Brief background of Time, which stayed on the best-seller perform of the British Sunday Times for 237 weeks, and The cosmos in a Nutshell. He freshly published My brief History, i m sorry is around his trip from a post-war London young to his years of worldwide acclaim and also celebrity.

Hawking, who has actually suffered for many years indigenous amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig\"s disease), has received numerous awards, consisting of the Special fundamental Physics compensation in 2012, the Copley Medal in 2006, and the Albert Einstein award in 1978.

Read more about Stephen Hawking in our short article The 50 greatest Living Geniuses.

Web resource: Stephen Hawking\"s residence Page.


21. Peter Higgs

Peter Higgs is a theoretical physicist and emeritus professor at the college of Edinburgh. He is ideal known for his job-related in the 1960s on a theory now known as the \"Higgs mechanism,\" which predicted the presence of the Higgs boson (sometimes popularly referred to as the \"God particle\"), and which is generally accepted as a vital element in the Standard version of particle physics. According to the standard Model, the Higgs device is the method by which the an essential particles the the typical Model gain their separation, personal, instance masses.

The presence of the Higgs boson was experimentally evidenced in 2012 by the ATLAS and also CMS experiment at the big Hadron Collider in ~ the European organization for Nuclear study (CERN) near Geneva, Switzerland. Together a an outcome of this speculative verification that his 40-year-old prediction, the following year (2o13) Higgs to be awarded the Nobel compensation in Physics (shared v François Englert).

The discovery of the Higgs boson validated the critical untested area that the traditional Model\"s method to basic particles and also forces, and now inspires physicists to probe because that still deeper theories and discoveries in bit physics.

Higgs studied for his doctorate in molecule physics in ~ King\"s university London, whereby he composed his thesis on difficulties in the concept of molecular vibrations. He has actually served as chair the Theoretical Physics in ~ Edinburgh, is a fellow of the royal Society, to be awarded the Rutherford Medal and also Prize in 1984, and became a other of the academy of Physics in 1991. He retirement in 1996, when he ended up being an emeritus professor in ~ the college of Edinburgh. In 2012, Edinburgh University established the Higgs Centre for Theoretical Physics to be housed in the university\"s college of Physics and Astronomy.

In enhancement to the Nobel prize in Physics in 2013, Higgs has earned countless other awards, such as the Sakurai compensation in 2010, the wolf Prize in Physics in 2004, and also the Dirac Medal in 1997.

Web resource: Peter Higgs\"s home Page.


22. Leroy Hood

Leroy Hood is co-founder and also President that the academy for systems Biology, a relatively new field that biology which he has helped to pioneer. In 2011, he won the Fritz J. And also Dolores H. Russ Prize because that automating DNA sequencing that reinvented biomedicine and forensic science.

Hood received an MD indigenous Johns Hopkins University and a Ph.D. Indigenous the California institute of Technology, wherein he likewise served as a faculty member because that 22 years.

Hood and his partner at Cal Tech produced the technological foundation for the scientific researches of genomics and also proteomics by fostering the advance of 5 groundbreaking instruments: the protein sequencer, the protein synthesizer, the DNA synthesizer, the automatic DNA sequencer, and also the ink-jet DNA synthesizer. Not just did this instruments assist to decipher organic information, they also introduced the ide of high-throughput data build-up through automation and also parallelization the protein and DNA chemistries.

In 2000, Hood participated in starting the academy for equipment Biology (ISB), a nonprofit, biomedical research company based in Seattle, Washington. The ISB was developed to combine biology, technology, and computation to develop a brand-new approach come the research of organic systems native an incorporated or whole-system perspective.

One of the signature projects of Hood\"s very own research team within the ISB is the \"predictive, personalized, preventive, and participatory\" (\"P4\") strategy to medicine.

Hood has actually received several remarkable awards, consisting of the nationwide Medal of scientific research in 2011, the Heinz compensation in 2006, and also the Albert Lasker compensation in 1987, among others.

Web resource: The academy for equipment Biology.Hood is additionally featured in our short article \"50 human being Who deserve a Nobel Prize.\"


23. Eric R. Kandel

Eric R. Kandel is college Professor & Kavli Professor of brain Science in the room of Neuroscience at Columbia University. Additionally, he is director of the Kavli academy for mind Science, Co-director the the Mind-Brain-Behavior Initiative, and senior Investigator in ~ the Howard Hughes clinical Institute. Kandel additionally founded the center for Neurobiology and Behavior in ~ Columbia.

Kandel obtained the 2000 Nobel compensation in Physiology or Medicine, along with Arvid Carlsson and Paul Greengard, for your discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system, and also its relationship to physiological communication of storage storage in the brain

Kandel attended brand-new York University\"s medical School, whereby he later took a place in the departments of Physiology and Psychiatry; eventually, he formed the division of Neurobiology and Behavior there.

Kandel has actually authored many books, including Principles that Neural Science, i beg your pardon is often used as a textbook and also reference message in medical schools. In 2006, he wrote , In search of Memory: The emergence of a brand-new Science the Mind, i beg your pardon is a well-known account of his life and also career. It was awarded the Los Angeles Times publication Award because that Science and also Technology.

Kandel has actually been forgive the wolf Prize in medication in 1999 and the Harvey prize in 1993, in addition to the Nobel prize in 2000.

Web resource: Eric R. Kandel\"s residence Page.


24. Andrew H. Knoll

Andrew H. Knoll is the Fisher Professor of Natural background and a Professor the Earth and also Planetary sciences at Harvard University. That is a Precambrian paleontologist and also biogeochemist.

Knoll is primarily known for discovering microscopic traces of early life (\"microfossils\") in plenty of locations, including Spitsbergen, Greenland, Siberia, China, Namibia, western phibìc America, and also Australia. The was amongst the very first to apply principles the taphonomy and also paleoecology to the interpretation of microfossils.

Knoll\"s work has actually been key to our expertise of the background of life top top earth throughout the Precambrian period, especially the Ediacaran fauna. However, that has likewise worked on difficulties of the Phanerozoic period. For example, he and his colleagues to be the an initial to hypothesize that rapid buildup of carbon dioxide play a vital role in end-Permian fixed extinction 252 million years ago.

Knoll has authored and co-authored four books, consisting of Biology: how Life Works, Fundamentals the Geobiology, The evolution of main Producers in the Sea, and Life top top a Young Planet: The an initial Billion year of evolution on Earth. He received the Phi Beta Kappa book Award for Life ~ above a Young Planet.

Knoll is a member that the U.S. Nationwide Academy the Sciences, the American Academy the Arts and Sciences, the American thoughtful Society, and also the American Academy that Microbiology.

Knoll is continuing to examine Archean and Proterozoic paleontology and biogeochemistry, and selected problems in Phanerozoic planet history. The has likewise served as a member the the science team because that NASA\"s MER rover mission come Mars.

Web resource: Andrew H. Knoll\"s residence Page.


25. Charles K. Kao

Charles K. Kao is an electric engineer and also physicist well-known as the “godfather of broadband.” In 2009, he winner the Nobel compensation in Physics for his pioneering research into the transmission of laser light through glass fibers in optical cables, which has led come the widespread usage of fiber optics in contemporary telecommunications. Unusually, he mutual the Prize through two other physicists who had actually pursued unrelated work.

Kao earned his Ph.D. In electrical engineering from university College London. He then joined the Chinese university of Hong Kong, whereby he started the room of Electronics. He likewise served as Vice Chancellor of the college for a decade. Today, he lives in retirement.

Kao began his experiments with fiber optics in the 1960s with strands that glass fibers thinner 보다 a human hair and also cheaper to produce than fishing line, which transmitted almost limitless amounts of digitized data via pulses the laser light. Today, fiber optic cables consist of the main facilities of modern telecommunications systems, including both telephony and also data transmission. Thus, the internet depends straight upon Kao\"s work.

Kao, a aboriginal of Shanghai, also founded the elevation Schools foundation Academy (ISF) in Hong Kong in 2000. The Academy is a non-profit, bilingual, exclusive independent school for qualities one v 12, and is an inquiry-based finding out environment.

Kao has received plenty of awards, including the asian of the Century compensation in 1999, the Prince Philip Medal in 1996, and also the IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal in 1985, in enhancement to the Nobel Prize.

Web resource: Charles K. Kao\"s Page.


26. Young name Karplus

Martin Karplus, a theoretical chemist, Emeritus Professor and also the Theodore william Richards Professor of Chemistry in ~ Harvard University. That is also Director the the Biophysical Chemistry Laboratory, a joint laboratory in between the French National center for scientific Research and the college of Strasbourg, France.

In 2013, Karplus got the Nobel compensation in Chemistry, together with Michael Levitt and also Arieh Warshel, for emerging multi-scale models for complicated chemical systems. Their contribution was ground-breaking, since they regulated to do Newton\"s classic physics occupational side-by-side through quantum mechanics. This technique makes feasible computer simulations that are so reality they very closely resemble the result of classic laboratory experiments.

Karplus earned his Ph.D. Indigenous the California academy of an innovation and to be a nationwide Science structure Postdoctoral other at Oxford University. He has made numerous contributions to physical chemistry, quantum chemistry, and also molecular dynamics. The Karplus equation, which defines the correlation in between coupling constants and dihedral angle in protein atom magnetic resonance spectroscopy, is named after him.

Karplus, who was born in Austria, has also made countless contributions to the field of theoretical chemistry through textbooks, such together Proteins: A Theoretical perspective of Dynamics, Structure and also Thermodynamics, and also Atoms and also Molecules: An introduction for students of physical Chemistry. His existing research interests are pertained to with the physics properties of molecules of organic interest.

Web resource: Martin Karplus\"s home Page.


27. Donald Knuth

Donald Knuth is a mathematician and also computer scientist. That is Professor Emeritus of the arts of computer Programming (a chair developed especially for him), in ~ Stanford University. The is the author of the multi-volume work, The arts of computer system Programming, which is the \"bible\" of the field of computer system programming. Together of 2013, the very first three quantities and component one that volume 4 of this magnum opus had actually been published.

Knuth deserve his Ph.D. In math from the California academy of Technology, where he then became a professor and also began occupational on The arts of computer system Programming. Knuth is well-known as the “father the the evaluation of algorithms.” He developed the WEB and also CWEB computer system programming systems designed come encourage and facilitate literate programming.

Knuth has actually been honored with plenty of awards, consisting of the Stanford University institution of engineering Hero award in 2011, other of the Computer background Museum in 1998, and the national Medal of scientific research in 1979, among others.

Knuth was elected to the U.S. National Academy of sciences in 1975, and in 2003, that was chosen as a international member that the Royal society of London. In 2009, the was chosen as a other of the culture for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, and also in 2012, he became a fellow of the American mathematical Society.

Web resource: Donald Knuth\"s home Page.


28. Robert J. Point out II

Robert J. Clues II is the differentiated Professor of Electrical and Computer design at Baylor university in Waco, Texas. Previously, he to be on the faculty the the university of Washington because that 25 years. That is a pioneer in the field of computational knowledge (which consists of neural networks, fuzzy sets, and evolutionary computing), and was the first president of the academy of Electrical and Electronics designers (IEEE) Neural Networks Council.

Marks obtained his Ph.D. In electrical engineering native Texas tech University. He has over 300 peer-reviewed journal publications. That is additionally a proponent of smart design, holding that specific features that the universe and also of living points are ideal explained by an smart cause, not an undirected procedure such as herbal selection.

Marks has actually made important technical contributions throughout widely diverse areas, such as the spacing that radium inserts to treat prostate cancer, signal display, far sensing, optical picture sampling, optical computers, and also the usage of fuzzy logic to regulate the electrical grid (how electrical power is delivered today counts crucially on the work-related of Marks). He has served as a consultant to service providers such together Microsoft and Boeing corporation.

Marks has actually authored several books including, the Handbook that Fourier analysis and that is Applications, Neural Smithing: Supervised discovering in Feedforward synthetic Neural Networks, and Applications the Neural Networks to strength Systems, among others.

Marks has actually received plenty of awards, consisting of the IEEE differentiated Lecturer twice, once from the IEEE Neural Networks council in 1991--92, and again indigenous the IEEE Neural Networks culture in 2002--03, as well as the gold Jubilee Medal in 1999 indigenous the IEEE Circuits and also Systems Society. That is a other of the IEEE.

In 2007, Marks established the evolutionary Informatics Lab at Baylor to research the information-theoretic underpinnings of smart design. The study of the lab has produced a stable stream that peer-reviewed design publications that space influencing numerous in the engineering neighborhood to accept intelligent design, controversial though it remains, together a legitimate clinical theory.

Web resource: Robert J. Point out II\"s home Page.


29. Craig C. Mello

Craig C. Mello is a biologist and also professor the molecular medicine at the college of Massachusetts. In 2006, he was awarded the Nobel Prize because that Physiology or Medicine, in addition to Andrew Z. Fire (#14 on our list), for the discovery of RNA interference (RNAi).

See more: Converting 500 Grams Is How Many Kilograms : How, Converting 500 Grams To Kilograms: How

Mello earned his Ph.D. Indigenous Harvard University and also was a postdoctoral fellow at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer study Center. Fire and Mello\"s Nobel Prize--winning research has displayed that RNAi dram a key role in gene regulation.

Mello is connected in number of RNAi-based biotechnological companies. He co-founded the clinical advisory board member of RXi Pharmaceuticals, i m sorry is now Galena Biopharma. He serves on