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From biotechnology and digital media come sustainable energy and cloud computing, practically everything now is in which method affected---and sometimes entirely reshaped---by clinical and technical advances.

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By scientific research in this short article we typical the natural and engineering scientific researches (we hence exclude pure mathematics as well as the society sciences). Thus, in this article, we focus on scientists in the biological, medical, and also physical sciences as well as those pertained to with technology and specifically computers.

As a society, us have concerned take the fruit of scientific research for granted, such together our usage of computers, our access to to run water and also electricity, and our dependency on various forms of transportation and also communication. However all such services follow indigenous the discoveries and inventions of researchers as they go after deep insights right into the operations of nature and also its materials.

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This short article focuses ~ above the 50 most influential scientists alive today and their profound contributions to science. This are researchers who have actually invented the Internet and also fiber optics, challenged AIDS and also cancer, developed brand-new drugs, and in basic made vital advances in medicine, genetics, astronomy, ecology, physics, and also computer programming.

In introduce to the scientists on this list together “influential,” this article attempts come gauge their influence on scientific research as such. In other words, the scientists provided here are prominent because of the groundbreaking scientific occupational they have actually done and its affect on the world.

Some researchers are enormously influential as popularizers or culture critics or public intellectuals. In this respect, numbers like Richard Dawkins and also Lawrence Krauss, or Carl Sagan and Stephen Jay Gould a generation back, pertained to mind. The scientists on this list, however, room here since of their preeminence as researchers doing science.

The scientists described here room all an imaginative and brilliant. Many of lock are likewise unusual and interesting---colorful characters that it would be a satisfied to know!

As you feast on the names and biographies of the scientists on this list, additionally check the end our short article \"The World\"s 50 Smartest Teenagers.\" some of the most influential scientists later will be drawn from this list.

Join us this summer as two world-renowned thinkers, Rupert Sheldrake and also Michael Shermer, discuss and debate the nature that science! Enjoy!

Name field of affect Name ar of affect
1. Alain Aspect Quantum Theory 26. Young name Karplus Quantum Chemistry
2. David Baltimore Virology—HIV & Cancer 27. Donald Knuth Computer Programming
3. Allen Bard Electrochemistry 28. Robert clues II Computational Intelligence
4. Timothy Berners- Lee Computer science (WWW) 29. Craig Mello Molecular medicine
5. John Tyler Bonner Evolutionary Biology 30. Luc Montagnier Immunology—HIV
6. Dennis Bray Molecular Biology 31. Gordon Moore Physicist—Intel Corp.
7. Sydney Brenner Biology—Genetics 32. Kary Mullis DNA Chemist
8. Pierre Chambon Genetics & to move Biology 33. C. Nüsslein- Volhard Developmental Biology
9. Simon Conway Morris Evolutionary Paleobiology 34. Seiji Ogawa fMRI Technology
10. Mildred Dresselhaus Carbon Science 35. Jeremiah Ostriker Astrophysics
11. Gerald M. Edelman Neuroscience 36. I get it Penrose Mathematics & Physics
12. Ronald Evans Molecular Genetics 37. Stanley Prusiner Neurodegeneration
13. Anthony Fauci Immunology—HIV 38. Henry F. Schaefer III Quantum Chemistry
14. Anthony Fire Genetics—RNAi 39. Cutting board Südhof Neurotransmission
15. Jean Fréchet Biotechnology 40. Jack Szostak Genetics
16. Margaret Geller Astronomy 41. James tour Nanotechnology
17. Jane Goodall Primatologist 42. Charles Townes Quantum Electronics
18. Alan Guth Inflationary Cosmology 43. Harold Varmus Oncology
19. Lene Vestergaard Hau Quantum Physics 44. Craig Venter Human Genetics
20. Stephen Hawking Physics & Cosmology 45. James Watson Molecular Biology—DNA
21. Peter Higgs Physics—Higgs Boson 46. Steven Weinberg Theoretical Physics
22. Leroy Hood Systems Biology 47. George Whitesides Chemistry—Spectroscopy
23. Eric Kandel Neuroscience 48. Edward Wilson Biology—Myrmecology
24. Andrew Knoll Paleontology 49. Edward Witten String Theory
25. Charles Kao Fiber Optics 50. Shinya Yamanaka Stem cabinet Research

1. Alain Aspect

Alain element holds the Augustin Fresnel Chair at the Institut d\"Optique and is also a Professor at the École Polytechnique, both in Paris. That is likewise a member the the French Academy of Sciences and the French Academy that Technologies. A graduate that the École Normale Supérieure de Cachan (ENS Cachan), facet passed the agrégation in physics in 1969 and also received his master\"s degree from Université d\"Orsay.

In 2013, top top the 100th anniversary the Niels Bohr\"s pioneering atomic model, the Danish culture of Engineers, in collaboration with the Niels Bohr Institute and the royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters, forgive the Niels Bohr Medal to Aspect.

Aspect do his most an essential breakthroughs in quantum theory. In 2005, he to be awarded the CSNR yellow Medal by settling a 70-year-old dispute between Niels Bohr and also Albert Einstein over the simple understanding that quantum physics through demonstrating the fascinating phenomenon that entanglement (non-local instantaneous interactions in between particles, which Einstein rejected because that propagating physical influences faster than the rate of light). Aspect\"s occupational is foundational to the field of quantum computing.

Some of his best-known experiments shown that “quantum entanglement” for twinned photon bag is irreconcilable v Einstein\"s worldview. These experiments measured 2 particles the were released at the very same time and also from the same resource in opposite directions. The outcomes were conclusive evidence of entanglement.

Aspect proceeds his experiments, which are basic to our expertise of how every little thing in the civilization is interconnected. The is right now studying the localization of tide in solids utilizing ultra-cold atoms.

Web resource: Alain Aspect\"s home Page.Aspect is also featured in our article \"50 human being Who worthy a Nobel Prize.\"


2. David Baltimore

David Baltimore is at this time Professor of Biology at the California institute of Technology, wherein he offered as president from 1997 to 2006. He likewise serves as the manager of the Joint facility for Translational Medicine, which join Caltech and also UCLA in a regimen to translate straightforward science discoveries into clinical realities.

Baltimore is a graduate of Swarthmore College and Rockefeller University. In 2004, Rockefeller University gave Baltimore an honorary physician of Science.

In 1975, in ~ the young period of 38, David Baltimore got the Nobel Prize, along with Howard Temin and Renato Dulbecco. They were awarded the prize for your discoveries concerning the interaction in between tumor viruses and the genetic material that the cell. One of Baltimore\"s most far-ranging contributions was in virology, because that his exploration of the protein reverse transcriptase, necessary for the reproduction of retroviruses such as HIV.

In 1999, President invoice Clinton vested Baltimore the national Medal of science for his prodigious contribute to science. The has had a profound influence on nationwide science policy, spanning everything from stem cell study to cloning to AIDS.

Baltimore is previous president and chair the the American combination of the advancement of science (2007--2009). He was recently called a fellow of the American Association for Cancer research (AACR).

Baltimore has published 680 peer-reviewed articles. His current research focuses on the regulate of inflammatory and also immune responses, ~ above the roles of microRNAs in the immune system, and also the use of gene therapy techniques to treat HIV and cancer.

He is also a member of countless scientific advisory boards, including the vast Institute, Ragon Institute, Regulus Therapeutics, and also Immune Design.

Web resource: David Baltimore\"s house Page.


3. Allen J. Bard

Allen J. Bard is a professor at the university of Texas, whereby he additionally serves as director of the facility for Electrochemistry and holds the Norman Hackerman-Welch Regents Chair. He received his Ph.D. From Harvard college in 1958.

In 2011, Bard was awarded the national Medal of scientific research for his contributions in electrochemistry, consisting of electroluminescence, semiconductor photo-electrochemistry, electro-analytical chemistry, and the innovation of the scanning electrochemical microscope. His exploration of electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) has permitted the medical community to finding the HIV virus and also analyze DNA.

Bard is taken into consideration the “father of modern-day electrochemistry.” In 2013, president Obama vested Bard v the national Medal that Science. Various other awards he has received incorporate the wolf Prize in Chemistry in 2008, the priesthood Medal in 2002, and also the fellow of American Academy that Arts and also Sciences in 1990.

He has published 3 books: Electrochemical Methods, with Larry Faulkner, Integrated chemistry Systems, and also Chemical Equilibrium. that has likewise published end 600 papers and chapters, while editing and enhancing the series Electroanalytical Chemistry (21 volumes) and also the Encyclopedia the the Electrochemistry the the Elements (16 volumes). That is at this time editor-in-chief of the Journal of the American chemical Society.

Bard\"s current research focuses on harnessing the power of organic sunlight to create sustainable energy. His lab at the college of Texas tests different chemical link in the wishes of finding out a product that will bring out man-made photosynthesis. Bard feel strongly that such discoveries must be sought and also made because otherwise humankind will it is in in deep trouble together fossil fuels operation out.

Web resource: Allen J. Bard\"s house Page.Bard is additionally featured in our post \"50 civilization Who deserve a Nobel Prize.\"


4. Timothy Berners-Lee

Timothy Berners-Lee is a computer scientist, ideal known together the inventor of the World vast Web. He to be honored as the \"Inventor the the World large Web\" during the 2012 Summer Olympics opened ceremony. In 2009, the was chosen as a international associate of the joined States nationwide Academy of Sciences. And also in 2004, Berners-Lee was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II because that his pioneering work.

Berners-Lee graduated from emperors College, Oxford. He worked as an live independence contractor in ~ the European organization for Nuclear research (CERN) native June to December 1980. When there, the proposed utilizing hypertext to facilitate sharing and also updating information among researchers. Over a te later, he developed the first website in ~ CERN, and also it was first put online in august of 1991.

In November 2009, Berners-Lee released the World vast Web structure “to tackle the an essential obstacles to establish his vision of an open internet available, usable, and an useful for everyone.” In 2013, the Alliance because that Affordable net was launched, and also Berners-Lee is top the coalition that public and private organizations, consisting of Google, Facebook, Intel, and also Microsoft.

In 2013, Berners-Lee was one of 5 Internet and Web pioneers vested the inaugural Queen Elizabeth Prize because that Engineering. The was likewise awarded one honorary medical professional of Science degree from the college of St. Andrews. And in 2012, Berners-Lee was inducted right into the internet Hall of reputation by the internet Society.

Web resource: Timothy Berners-Lee\"s home Page.


5. John Tyler Bonner

John Tyler Bonner is just one of the world\"s leading biologists, primarily known for his occupational in the use of moving slime molds to recognize evolution. He has led the means in making Dictyostelium discoideum a model organism central to analyzing some the the major questions in speculative biology. He is the George M. Moffett Professor Emeritus of biology in the room of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology in ~ Princeton University.

Bonner studied at Harvard University. His Ph.D. Research studies were interrupted by a stint in the unified States military Air Corps, for this reason he perfect his research studies in an abnormally short duration of time. He shortly joined the faculty the Princeton University. That holds 3 honorary doctorates and also is a other of the American Association for the advancement of Science. He to be made a nationwide Academy that Sciences fellow in 1973.

Some that his functions include: The to move Slime Molds, The evolution of society in Animals, Life Cycles, and The principles of Biology. Bonner\"s work says for the underappreciated function that randomness, or chance, dram in evolution. In among his latest works, Randomness in Evolution, Bonner shows how the impacts of randomness differ because that organisms of different sizes, and how the smaller an biology is, the an ext likely it is that morphological distinctions will be random and selection may no be affiliated to any far-reaching degree.

He likewise discusses just how sexual cycles vary relying on size and complexity, and how the tendency away indigenous randomness in greater forms has even been reversed in some social organisms. Bonner\"s current research interests incorporate experiments designed come understand just how this reversal is accomplished in a number of species that differ morphologically.

Web resource: John Tyler Bonner\"s residence Page.


6. Dennis Bray

Dennis Bray is a professor emeritus in the room of Physiology, Development, and also Neuroscience in ~ the university of Cambridge. He to be trained together a biochemist at MIT and also a neurobiologist in ~ Harvard medical School prior to returning to the UK, whereby he had actually a long research job in the fields of nerve growth and cell motility.

Bray has authored countless textbooks ~ above molecular and also cell biologic such as Molecular biology of the Cell and cell Movements. His most recent book, Wetware, is because that a general audience. In it, Bray taps the result of the new discipline of equipment biology to present that the internal chemistry the living cells constitutes a kind of computation. In the publication he says that the computational power of cells offers the basis of every the distinctive nature of living systems, enabling organisms to embody in their internal structure an image of the world, which accounts for their adaptability, responsiveness, and also intelligence.

Bray obtained the Microsoft European scientific research Award for his work-related on chemotaxis in E. Coli. He used detailed computer system simulations, bound to experimental data, to ask how the macromolecular pathway regulating cell motility in bacteria works as an incorporated unit. His team discovered that the physical location of molecular contents within the molecular tropical of the cell internal is an essential to understand their function.

Bray\"s many recent work includes the propagation of allosteric claims in huge multi-protein complexes. The has additionally recently published several an ext popular articles, consisting of a donation to a 2012 Alan Turing centenary symposium in Nature entitled “Is the mind a great Model for device Intelligence?,” as well as an essay entitled “Brain matches Machine” in the arsenal Singularity Hypotheses: A Scientific and Philosophical Assessment.

Web resource: Dennis Bray\"s residence Page.


7. Sydney Brenner

Sydney Brenner is a biologist and also the winner that the 2002 Nobel compensation in Physiology or Medicine, mutual with H. Robert Horvitz and also John Sulston. His significant contributions are in elucidating the genetic code. Brenner is the an elderly Distinguished fellow of the Crick-Jacobs facility at the Salk institute of biological Sciences.

Among his numerous notable discoveries, Brenner developed the presence of messenger RNA and demonstrated exactly how the stimulate of amino mountain in protein is determined. Start in 1965, he likewise began to command the pioneering job-related with the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans, which at some point led to his Nobel Prize. In this research, he laid the groundwork to do C. Elegans---a small, transparent nematode (worm)---a significant model organism for study in genetics, neurobiology, and also developmental biology.

Brenner, together with George Pieczenik, created the first computer matrix analysis of nucleic acids making use of the TRAC computer language, which Brenner continues to use. They went back to their early work on deciphering the hereditary code through a speculative record on the origin of protein synthesis, where constraints ~ above mRNA and also tRNA co-evolved, allowing for a five-base interaction with a flip of the anticodon loop, and thereby producing a triplet password translating device without request a ribosome. This is the just published file in scientific history with three independent Nobel laureates collaborating as authors (the other two were Francis Crick and also Aaron Klug).

Brenner has been forgive the international Associate the the national Academy that Sciences, the Albert Lasker medical Research award in 1971, and also ultimately the Nobel compensation in Physiology or medication in 2002.

Most recently, Brenner is studying vertebrate gene and also genome evolution. His work in this area has resulted in new ways of evaluating gene sequences, i m sorry have emerged into a new understanding of the development of vertebrates.

Web resource: Sydney Brenner\"s house Page.


8. Pierre Chambon

Pierre Chambon is professor in ~ the college of Strasbourg\"s institute for advanced Study, honorary professor in ~ the Collège de France, and emeritus professor at the Faculty of medicine of the college of Strasbourg.

He is the founder and former manager of the Institute because that Genetics and also Cellular and Molecular biology (IGBMC), and also the founder and also former manager of the Institut Clinique de la Souris (Clinical Institute because that the Mouse), in Strasbourg, France.

Chambon made significant contributions to the exploration of the superfamily of nuclear receptors, and to the elucidation of their universal device of activity that links transcription, physiology, and pathology. These discoveries revolutionized the fields of development, endocrinology, and also metabolism, and their disorders, pointing to new tactics for drug discovery and important brand-new applications in biotechnology and modern-day medicine.

The writer of more than 900 publications, Chambon has been ranked fourth among the most significant life scientists during the 1983--2002 period. Several of his awards encompass the Gairdner foundation International compensation in 2010 (for the elucidation of basic mechanisms of warrior in pet cells and also the discovery of the nuclear receptor superfamily), the Lasker simple Medical research Award in 2004, and the march of Dimes prize in Developmental biological in 2003.

Chambon is a member of the Académie des sciences (France), the national Academy of sciences (U.S.), and also the royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. He also serves ~ above a variety of editorial boards.

Chambon is likewise featured in our post \"50 civilization Who worthy a Nobel Prize.\"


9. Simon Conway Morris

Simon Conway Morris is Chair of evolutionary Palaeobiology in the earth Sciences room at Cambridge University. He is renowned because that his job-related on the burgess Shale fossils. Conway Morris\"s see on the burgess Shale are reported in plenty of technical papers, and have been recounted for a an ext general audience in Stephen Jay Gould\"s Wonderful Life and in Conway Morris\"s own book, The Crucible that Creation.

The burgess Shale Formation, located in the Canadian Rockies of brothers Columbia, is just one of the world\"s most fertile fossil fields, renowned for the superior preservation that the soft components of that fossils. At 505 million year old, it is just one of the faster fossil beds containing soft-part imprints.

As a paleobiologist, Conway Morris is known for being a devout Christian, one who tries to show that the proof from paleobiology and evolution supports the visibility of God. He is an increasingly active participant in discussions relating come science and religion. The is energetic in the Faraday Institute because that Science and also Religion and has lectured over there on \"Evolution and Fine-Tuning in Biology.\" In 2007, Conway Morris was invite to give the prestigious Gifford Lectures at university of Edinburgh; lock were titled \"Darwin\"s Compass: How evolution Discovers the tune of Creation.\" In this lectures Conway Morris renders several claims that evolution is compatible with id in the presence of a God.

Some of his awards include Texas A&M\"s Trotter compensation in 2007, the GSL Charles Lyell Medal in 1998, and also the Paleontological Society\"s Charles Schuchert compensation in 1989. In current years, Conway Morris has actually been studying evolutionary convergence---the phenomenon through which unrelated groups of animals and also plants develop similar adaptations---the main thesis of i beg your pardon is placed forward in his well-known Life\"s Solution: Inevitable people in a Lonely Universe.

Web resource: Simon Conway Morris\"s house Page.


10. Mildred S. Dresselhaus

Mildred S. Dresselhaus is a professor the physics and also electrical engineering, and also the Emerita institute Professor in ~ MIT. Having attended Hunter college in new York City together an undergraduate, she got a Fulbright Fellowship to to visit the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge University. Dresselhaus got her master\"s degree at Radcliffe College and also her Ph.D. In ~ the college of Chicago.

Known together the \"queen the carbon science,” Dresselhaus started her MIT job at the Lincoln Laboratory. Throughout that time she switched from research on superconductivity come magneto-optics, and also carried the end a collection of experiments which resulted in a an essential understanding that the electronic structure that semi-metals, specifically graphite.

A leader in promoting methods for women in science and also engineering, Dresselhaus obtained a Carnegie structure grant in 1973 come encourage women\"s research of traditionally male-dominated fields, such as physics. She was additionally appointed to the Abby Rockefeller Mauze Chair, an Institute-wide chair, endowed to assistance the scholarship of females in science and also engineering.

Some of she awards include the knife T. Compton Medal for management in Physics, the American academy of Physics in 2001, the Medal of success in Carbon science and technology by the American Carbon culture in 2001, and an Honorary Member that the Ioffe Institute, Russian Academy that Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia, in 2000.

In 2012, Dresselhaus to be awarded the prestigious Kavli Institute\"s prize in nanoscience. In 1990, she received the national Medal of scientific research in recognition of her occupational on digital properties of materials.

Web resource: Mildred S. Dresselhaus passed far February 20, 2017..


11. Gerald M. Edelman

Gerald M. Edelman is a biologist, immunologist, and also neuroscientist. The is the founder and also director the the Neurosciences Institute, a non-profit research facility that studies the biological bases that higher brain function in humans, and he is on the scientific board that the world Knowledge dialogue project.

Edleman obtained an MD indigenous the college of Pennsylvania\"s college of Medicine. He common the 1972 Nobel prize in Physiology or medicine for work with Rodney Robert Porter top top the immune system. Their research study uncovered the structure of antibody molecules as well as the deep connection in between how the contents of the immune device evolve over the life the the individual and how the neural circuitry that the mind evolves end that exact same life.

The Karolinska Institutet lauded Edelman and also Porter\"s job-related as a significant breakthrough, stating: “The affect of Edelman\"s and Porter\"s discoveries is described by the fact that they noted a clear snapshot of the structure and mode of action of a group of biologically particularly important substances. By this they laid a firm foundation for important rational research, something that was previously lacking in immunology. Their explorations represent clearly a break-through that immediately incited a fervent research task the whole people over, in all areas of immunological science, yielding results of practical value because that clinical diagnostics and also therapy.”

Edelman is detailed for his theory of consciousness, which he has documented in number of technical books, and books written for a general audience, including Bright Air, excellent Fire, A universe of Consciousness (with Giulio Tononi), Wider 보다 the Sky, and Second Nature: mind Science and also Human Knowledge.

Web resource: The Neurosciences Institute\"s house Page.


12. Ronald M. Evans

Ronald M. Evans is the in march of Dimes Chair in Molecular and Developmental Biology in ~ the Salk institute for biological Studies in san Diego. He is finest known for his work-related in the physiology and the molecular genetics of muscle performance, metabolic disease, inflammation, and also cancer, and also for using this details to devise small-molecule therapy.

Evans got his Ph.D. Indigenous UCLA and also conducted his postdoctoral training in ~ Rockefeller University. In enhancement to his work at the Salk Institute, Evans is a Howard Hughes medical Institute Investigator.

In 2004, he shared the Albert Lasker simple Medical research Award v Pierre Chambon (#8 on ours list) and also Elwood Jensen for the discovery of the superfamily of atom hormone receptors, and also for the elucidation that the unifying mechanism that regulates embryonic breakthrough and varied metabolic pathways.

Other awards he has actually received include the wolf Prize in medication in 2012, the Albany Medical center Prize (shared with Solomon Snyder and Robert Lefkowitz) in 2012, the Harvey compensation in 2006, and the Gairdner foundation International award in 2006, among numerous various other awards.

Other research study of Evans concentrates on a new hormone that shows up to it is in the molecular create controlling the development of fat cells. Identify this create represents one of the newest and also most important advances in understanding problems developing from obesity and also the potential therapy of adult onset form II diabetes.

Web resource: Ronald M. Evans\"s residence Page.Evans is likewise featured in our write-up \"50 civilization Who deserve a Nobel Prize.\"


13. Anthony S. Fauci

Anthony S. Fauci got his MD from Cornell University\"s medical College. The is head of the Clinical Physiology Section and also chief that the laboratory of Immunoregulation at the national Institute that Allergy and Infectious illness (NIAID), a component of the nationwide Institutes of wellness (NIH).

Fauci has an extensive research portfolio the includes applied research come prevent, diagnose, and also treat infectious and also immune-mediated illnesses (including HIV/AIDS and also other sexually sent diseases), illnesses from potential agents the bioterrorism, tuberculosis, malaria, autoimmune disorders, asthma, and allergies. That is widely known for delineating the specific mechanisms through which immunosuppressive agents modulate the person immune response.

A 1985 Stanford university Arthritis center Survey that the American Rheumatism Association member ranked the occupational of Dr. Fauci ~ above the therapy of polyarteritis nodosa and Wegener\"s granulomatosis as one of the many important developments in patient monitoring in rheumatology over the ahead 20 years.

Fauci has actually made seminal contributions to the knowledge of exactly how the AIDS virus destroys the body\"s defenses, causing its susceptibility to deadly infections, and also he proceeds to devote lot of his study time to identifying the nature the the immunopathogenic mechanisms of HIV infection and the border of the body\"s immune responses come the HIV retrovirus.

He is a member the the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, the American philosophical Society, the institute of medicine of the U.S. Nationwide Academy that Sciences, and the American Academy that Arts and Sciences. Fauci has authored, co-authored, or edited an ext than 1,000 scientific publications and also several textbooks.

Web resource: Anthony S. Fauci\"s residence Page.


14. Andrew Z. Fire

Andrew Z. Fire is a scientist and also professor that pathology and also genetics in ~ the Stanford University college of Medicine. Before his existing position, he was on the faculty in the room of biology at Johns Hopkins University.

Fire carried out his graduate work-related in biology at MIT, and also then join the medical Research council (MRC) laboratory of molecule Biology in Cambridge, England. He then joined the staff at the Carnegie college in Baltimore, where he and Craig C. Mello (#29 on our list) conducted their 2006 Nobel prize winning research, which led to the discovery of RNA interference (RNAi), a system for controlling the circulation of genetic information.

Nick Hastie, director of the medical Research Council\"s Human genetics Unit, comment on the scope and also implications of Fire\"s study by stating: \"It is an extremely unusual because that a piece of job-related to fully revolutionize the whole way we think about biological processes and regulation, however this has opened up a whole new field in biology.”

Fire is a member of the nationwide Academy of Sciences and the American Academy that Arts and also Sciences. He likewise serves on the plank of clinical Counselors and also the National facility for Biotechnology, nationwide Institutes that Health. He has won plenty of awards consisting of the Wiley compensation in 2003, the national Academy of scientific researches Award in molecule Biology in 2003, and the Meyenburg compensation in 2002 indigenous the German Cancer study Center.

His current research concentrates on the molecular understanding of the RNAi machinery and also its duties in the cell, and also on the to know of various other triggers and also mechanisms used in the acknowledgment of, and solution to, chemical info coming from external the cell.

Web resource: Andrew Z. Fire\"s home Page.


15. Jean M.J. Fréchet

Jean M.J. Fréchet is a chemist and the Henry Rapoport Chair of essential Chemistry in the department of chemistry at the college of California, Berkeley. The is also the vice chairman of study at the King Abdullah university of scientific research & technology in Saudi Arabia.

Fréchet holds over 70 U.S. Patents and also his research is conducted in the areas of organic synthesis, polymer chemistry, nanoscience, and also nanotechnology, in i m sorry he has authored virtually 800 articles, v a significant emphasis on the design, fundamental understanding, synthesis, and also applications of practical macromolecules.

Fréchet, that was born in France, has actually received numerous awards, including the American Chemical culture Cope Scholar compensation in 2001, the American Chemical society Award in Polymer Chemistry in 2000, and also the society of Imaging Science and also Technology\"s Kosar Memorial compensation in 1999, among others.

Fréchet is a member of the American chemistry Society, the national Academy that Sciences, the national Academy that Arts and also Sciences, and also Academia Europaea. He also serves together the associate editor of the Journal the the American chemistry Society.

Fréchet\"s current research concentrates on the an essential and used aspects that organic, polymer, and materials chemistry. He has provided that many of his tasks involve three stages: (1) design; (2) synthesis; and (3) characterization, whereby the function of the structure and properties room tested.

Web resource: Jean M.J. Fréchet\"s residence Page.Fréchet is likewise featured in our post \"50 people Who deserve a Nobel Prize.\"


16. Margaret J. Geller

Margaret J. Geller is an astrophysicist at the Harvard-Smithsonian facility for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts. She received her Ph.D. In physics indigenous Princeton University and also was an assistant professor the astronomy in ~ Harvard University.

She do pioneering maps the the massive structures of the universe, which led to the exploration of the filamentous galactic superstructure popularly recognized as the \"Great Wall\"---the largest known superstructure in the universe. Geller has likewise developed innovative techniques for investigating the internal structure and total massive of clusters of galaxies and the connection of swarm to the massive structure.

In addition, she is a co-discoverer that hypervelocity stars, stars ejected in ~ high velocity indigenous the Galactic center.These stars deserve to travel across the Milky means and may be an important tracer that the matter circulation in the Galaxy

Geller\"s present main research study interests incorporate a task she leads referred to as the \"Smithsonian Hectospec Lensing Survey\" (SHELS), which offers the phenomenon of gravitational lensing tomap the circulation of the mysterious, ubiquitous dark issue in the universe. She is additionally investigating the effects of the discovery of hypervelocity stars, and also heading up a project called \"HectoMAP,\" i m sorry uses huge databases of information to map swarm of galaxies, and which consequently aids united state in understanding just how these systems develop over the history of the universe.

Geller has made films around science. She eight-minute video, \"Where the Galaxies Are,\" developed in 1989, was the very first graphic voyage through the universe based upon observation. The video was presented at several significant science museums, and also graphics from it were extensively broadcast. Later, a 40-minute film was produced that consists of prize-winning graphics, which room on display screen at the national Air and an are Museum.

Geller is the recipient of many awards, consisting of the Julius Edgar Lilienfeld compensation of the American Physical society in 2013, the Henry Norris Russell Lectureship the the American Astronomical culture in 2010, the James Craig Watson Medal of the nationwide Academy of scientific researches in 2010, and also the Magellanic Premium the the American Philosophical society in 2008, among several others.

Web resource: Margaret J. Geller\"s house Page.


17. Mrs Goodall

Jane Goodall is a primatologist, ethologist, and also anthropologist. She has actually studied the social and family interactions of wild chimpanzees for over 40 years, and is thus taken into consideration the foremost expert on chimpanzees. She learned at Darwin university in Cambridge and holds numerous honorary doctorates from universities such as Syracuse University, Rutgers University, the university of Liverpool, and also the college of Toronto, amongst others.

Goodall has performed most of she research, beginning in 1960 v no clinical training, in ~ Gombe Stream nationwide Park, which is situated in the western Kigoma region of Tanzania, ~ above the eastern shore the Lake Tanganyika. Goodall supporters for chimpanzee welfare, the conservation of biodiversity, and general stewardship the the Earth. The research conducted by Goodall in ~ Gombe currently not just is scientifically vital but likewise benefits the park itself.

in 1977, Goodall founded the woman Goodall Institute, and also the youth-focused eco-friendly group roots & shooting in 1991. The latter has actually now get an impression to incorporate over 800 local chapters in virtually 90 countries roughly the world. She has also published countless books about her work-related at the Gombe stream station, significantly My Life v the Chimpanzees, In the zero of Man (with Richard Wrangham), and, many recently, Jane Goodall: 50 year at Gombe.

One of Goodall\"s many notable awards was she appointment together Dame command of the Most fantastic Order of the British empire (DBE), in 2004. Other remarkable awards incorporate the Discovery and Imagination compensation in 2005, the Benjamin Franklin Medal in Life science in 2003, the Harvard clinical School\"s facility for Health and the global Environment award in 2003, and also the john & Alice Tyler Prize because that Environmental achievement in 1997, amongst numerous various other awards for she work and dedication.

Today, Goodall devotes virtually all of her time to advocacy on instead of of chimpanzees and also the environment, traveling practically 300 work a year. Goodall is likewise a board member for conserve the Chimps located in ft Pierce, Florida. The is the world\"s largest chimpanzee sanctuary external of Africa.

Web resource: The jane Goodall Institute.


18. Alan Guth

Alan Guth is a theoretical physicist and also cosmologist, who at this time serves as the Victor Weisskopf Professor the Physics at the Massachusetts institute of Technology.

Guth is the originator the the inflationary cosmology, a concept of the cosmos that answer the conundrum do by the large Bang the why the universe appears flat, homogeneous, and also isotropic, when one would suppose (on the communication of the physics of the large Bang) a very curved, heterogeneous, and also anisotropic universe. His theory, if correct, would explain the origin of the large structure of the cosmos.

Guth\"s an initial step to developing his theory of inflation developed at Cornell in 1978, when he attend a lecture by Robert Dicke about the flatness trouble of the universe. Dicke explained how the flatness problem showed that something far-reaching was missing from the big Bang theory at the time. Guth very first made publicly his ideas on inflation at a seminar in 1980 ~ he submitted his paper, titled \"The Inflationary Universe: A possible Solution to the Horizon and also Flatness Problems,\" come the journal Physical Review.

In 1997, Guth writer the publication The Inflationary Universe: The quest for a new Theory the Cosmic Origins. In 2012, he to be awarded the an essential Physics Prize.

Much of Guth\"s present work involves the density fluctuations occurring from inflation, such together the effects of novel forms of inflation and whether the basic theory can be made much more rigorous. Guth is also interested in follow the possibility of inflation in \"brane world\" models, which propose that our world is a four-dimensional membrane floating in a higher-dimensional space.

Web resource: Alan Guth\"s residence Page.Guth is likewise featured in our short article \"50 human being Who worthy a Nobel Prize.\"


19. Lene Vestergaard Hau

Lene Vestergaard Hau is the Mallinckrodt Professor the Physics and Applied Physics in ~ Harvard University. Among her well-known achievements is using a superfluid to slow-moving a beam of irradiate to a standstill. This work led to additional experiments ~ above the move of irradiate to matter, climate from matter back into light, i m sorry led to essential implications for quantum encryption and quantum computing.

Hau and her associates in ~ Harvard University have actually demonstrated exquisite manage over light and matter in numerous experiments, yet her experiment v two condensates is one of the most compelling. In 2006, they efficiently transferred a qubit from irradiate to a matter wave and back into light, making use of Bose-Einstein condensates. When the matter is traveling in between the 2 Bose-Einstein condensates, it can be trapped because that minutes, then reshaped into something else. This novel kind of quantum regulate has ramifications for the developing fields that quantum info processing and quantum cryptography.

During she doctoral studies in quantum theory at the university of Aarhus in Denmark, Hau worked on ideas comparable to those involved in fiber optic cables moving light, however her work connected strings of atom in a silicon crystal moving electrons.

Hau\"s latest research has ongoing to be centered on cold atoms and also Bose-Einstein condensates. Her team uses laser cooling to efficiently precool atoms to temperatures in the micro-kelvin range. Recently, the Hau group succeeded in to reduce the irradiate speed---initially to 17 meters every second, and later to nearly zero m.p.s.---by optically inducing quantum interference in a Bose-Einstein condensate.

Ultra-slow irradiate creates a unique brand-new tool because that probing the an essential properties the Bose-Einstein condensates.

Web resource: Lene Vestergaard Hau\"s house Page.Hau is additionally featured in our short article \"50 world Who deserve a Nobel Prize.\"


20. Stephen Hawking

Stephen Hawking is a theoretical physicist and cosmologist. The is the manager of research study at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at Cambridge and also former Lucasian Professor the Mathematics.

Hawking is well-known for his work on gravitational singularity theorems in the structure of basic relativity, and the theoretical forecast that black color holes emit radiation, often referred to as \"Hawking radiation.\"

Hawking attend Oxford college as one undergraduate, and then Cambridge college for his graduate studies. Once Hawking started his graduate studies, there to be much controversy in the physics community around the prevailing theory of the creation of the universe. Motivated by roger Penrose\"s organize of a spacetime singularity in the center of black holes, Hawking used the same thinking to the entire universe, and during 1965 he wrote his thesis on this topic. The thesis make a seminal contribution to large Bang cosmology.

He has authored several well-known science publications on cosmology, including A Brief background of Time, which remained on the best-seller perform of the British Sunday Times for 237 weeks, and The universe in a Nutshell. He newly published My brief History, i m sorry is about his journey from a post-war London young to his years of worldwide acclaim and also celebrity.

Hawking, who has actually suffered for many years indigenous amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig\"s disease), has actually received plenty of awards, including the Special basic Physics prize in 2012, the Copley Medal in 2006, and also the Albert Einstein award in 1978.

Read much more about Stephen Hawking in our post The 50 best Living Geniuses.

Web resource: Stephen Hawking\"s home Page.


21. Peter Higgs

Peter Higgs is a theoretical physicist and emeritus professor in ~ the college of Edinburgh. The is ideal known because that his work-related in the 1960s on a concept now well-known as the \"Higgs mechanism,\" i m sorry predicted the presence of the Higgs boson (sometimes popularly referred to as the \"God particle\"), and also which is generally accepted as a crucial element in the Standard design of particle physics. According to the conventional Model, the Higgs system is the way by i beg your pardon the basic particles of the conventional Model gain their separation, personal, instance masses.

The existence of the Higgs boson was experimentally evidenced in 2012 by the ATLAS and CMS experiment at the huge Hadron Collider at the European company for Nuclear study (CERN) near Geneva, Switzerland. Together a result of this speculative verification of his 40-year-old prediction, the following year (2o13) Higgs to be awarded the Nobel compensation in Physics (shared v François Englert).

The discovery of the Higgs boson validated the last untested area of the typical Model\"s method to fundamental particles and also forces, and also now inspires physicists to probe because that still deeper theories and discoveries in fragment physics.

Higgs studied for his doctorate in molecular physics in ~ King\"s university London, where he wrote his thesis on problems in the theory of molecule vibrations. He has served together chair the Theoretical Physics in ~ Edinburgh, is a other of the royal Society, was awarded the Rutherford Medal and Prize in 1984, and became a other of the academy of Physics in 1991. He retired in 1996, when he ended up being an emeritus professor at the university of Edinburgh. In 2012, Edinburgh University created the Higgs Centre because that Theoretical Physics to it is in housed in the university\"s school of Physics and also Astronomy.

In addition to the Nobel prize in Physics in 2013, Higgs has actually earned countless other awards, such as the Sakurai compensation in 2010, the wolf Prize in Physics in 2004, and also the Dirac Medal in 1997.

Web resource: Peter Higgs\"s house Page.


22. Leroy Hood

Leroy Hood is co-founder and also President that the institute for equipment Biology, a relatively new field of biology i m sorry he has actually helped come pioneer. In 2011, he winner the Fritz J. And Dolores H. Russ Prize for automating DNA sequencing that reinvented biomedicine and forensic science.

Hood received an MD native Johns Hopkins University and a Ph.D. Native the California academy of Technology, wherein he additionally served as a faculty member for 22 years.

Hood and his partner at Cal Tech created the technological structure for the scientific researches of genomics and also proteomics by fostering the breakthrough of five groundbreaking instruments: the protein sequencer, the protein synthesizer, the DNA synthesizer, the automated DNA sequencer, and the ink-jet DNA synthesizer. Not just did this instruments aid to decipher biological information, they additionally introduced the ide of high-throughput data build-up through automation and also parallelization of protein and DNA chemistries.

In 2000, Hood participated in starting the institute for equipment Biology (ISB), a nonprofit, biomedical research company based in Seattle, Washington. The ISB was established to incorporate biology, technology, and also computation to create a brand-new approach to the study of organic systems indigenous an combined or whole-system perspective.

One the the signature jobs of Hood\"s own research group within the ISB is the \"predictive, personalized, preventive, and participatory\" (\"P4\") technique to medicine.

Hood has received several noteworthy awards, consisting of the national Medal of science in 2011, the Heinz compensation in 2006, and the Albert Lasker compensation in 1987, among others.

Web resource: The academy for systems Biology.Hood is also featured in our article \"50 human being Who worthy a Nobel Prize.\"


23. Eric R. Kandel

Eric R. Kandel is college Professor & Kavli Professor of mind Science in the department of Neuroscience in ~ Columbia University. Additionally, that is director of the Kavli institute for mind Science, Co-director that the Mind-Brain-Behavior Initiative, and an elderly Investigator at the Howard Hughes medical Institute. Kandel additionally founded the facility for Neurobiology and Behavior at Columbia.

Kandel received the 2000 Nobel compensation in Physiology or Medicine, along with Arvid Carlsson and Paul Greengard, for your discoveries concerning signal transduction in the concerned system, and its relationship to physiological communication of storage storage in the brain

Kandel attended new York University\"s medical School, whereby he later took a place in the departments of Physiology and Psychiatry; eventually, he formed the division of Neurobiology and also Behavior there.

Kandel has actually authored many books, consisting of Principles that Neural Science, i beg your pardon is frequently used together a textbook and reference text in medical schools. In 2006, he wrote , In find of Memory: The emergence of a new Science that Mind, which is a renowned account that his life and also career. It was awarded the Los Angeles Times book Award for Science and also Technology.

Kandel has been forgive the wolf Prize in medication in 1999 and the Harvey prize in 1993, in addition to the Nobel prize in 2000.

Web resource: Eric R. Kandel\"s house Page.


24. Andrew H. Knoll

Andrew H. Knoll is the Fisher Professor that Natural background and a Professor that Earth and Planetary sciences at Harvard University. The is a Precambrian paleontologist and biogeochemist.

Knoll is primarily known for finding out microscopic traces of beforehand life (\"microfossils\") in countless locations, including Spitsbergen, Greenland, Siberia, China, Namibia, western phibìc America, and also Australia. That was amongst the an initial to use principles of taphonomy and paleoecology to the interpretation of microfossils.

Knoll\"s work has actually been key to our expertise of the history of life on earth during the Precambrian period, especially the Ediacaran fauna. However, that has additionally worked on difficulties of the Phanerozoic period. Because that example, he and his colleagues to be the very first to hypothesize that rapid buildup of carbon dioxide played a key role in end-Permian massive extinction 252 million year ago.

Knoll has authored and also co-authored 4 books, consisting of Biology: exactly how Life Works, Fundamentals that Geobiology, The advancement of primary Producers in the Sea, and also Life on a Young Planet: The first Billion year of advancement on Earth. He received the Phi Beta Kappa publication Award for Life on a Young Planet.

Knoll is a member the the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy that Arts and Sciences, the American thoughtful Society, and the American Academy of Microbiology.

Knoll is proceeding to examine Archean and also Proterozoic paleontology and biogeochemistry, and selected problems in Phanerozoic earth history. That has additionally served as a member that the scientific research team for NASA\"s MER rover mission to Mars.

Web resource: Andrew H. Knoll\"s home Page.


25. Charles K. Kao

Charles K. Kao is an electrical engineer and physicist well-known as the “godfather of broadband.” In 2009, he won the Nobel compensation in Physics because that his pioneering research right into the transmission of laser light v glass yarn in optical cables, which has actually led to the widespread use of fiber optics in modern telecommunications. Unusually, he common the Prize v two various other physicists who had actually pursued unrelated work.

Kao earn his Ph.D. In electrical engineering from college College London. He then joined the Chinese college of Hong Kong, whereby he established the room of Electronics. He likewise served together Vice Chancellor that the college for a decade. Today, he resides in retirement.

Kao started his experiments through fiber optics in the 1960s with strands the glass yarn thinner 보다 a human being hair and also cheaper to produce than fishing line, which transmitted nearly limitless amounts of digitized data via pulses the laser light. Today, fiber optic cables consist of the main facilities of modern telecommunications systems, including both telephony and also data transmission. Thus, the net depends straight upon Kao\"s work.

Kao, a aboriginal of Shanghai, additionally founded the elevation Schools structure Academy (ISF) in Hong Kong in 2000. The Academy is a non-profit, bilingual, personal independent school for qualities one v 12, and also is an inquiry-based learning environment.

Kao has received numerous awards, consisting of the eastern of the Century compensation in 1999, the Prince Philip Medal in 1996, and also the IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal in 1985, in enhancement to the Nobel Prize.

Web resource: Charles K. Kao\"s Page.


26. Young name Karplus

Martin Karplus, a theoretical chemist, Emeritus Professor and also the Theodore wilhelm Richards Professor of Chemistry in ~ Harvard University. The is also Director the the Biophysical Chemistry Laboratory, a joint laboratory between the French National center for clinical Research and the university of Strasbourg, France.

In 2013, Karplus obtained the Nobel prize in Chemistry, along with Michael Levitt and also Arieh Warshel, for arising multi-scale models for facility chemical systems. Their donation was ground-breaking, due to the fact that they managed to make Newton\"s timeless physics occupational side-by-side through quantum mechanics. This strategy makes possible computer simulations that are so realistic they closely resemble the outcome of timeless laboratory experiments.

Karplus deserve his Ph.D. Native the California academy of modern technology and to be a national Science structure Postdoctoral other at Oxford University. He has made plenty of contributions to physical chemistry, quantum chemistry, and also molecular dynamics. The Karplus equation, which explains the correlation between coupling constants and dihedral angles in protein nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, is called after him.

Karplus, who was born in Austria, has also made plenty of contributions come the field of theoretical chemistry with textbooks, such as Proteins: A Theoretical perspective of Dynamics, Structure and also Thermodynamics, and also Atoms and also Molecules: An introduction for student of physics Chemistry. His current research interests are came to with the physics properties of molecule of biological interest.

Web resource: Martin Karplus\"s house Page.


27. Donald Knuth

Donald Knuth is a mathematician and also computer scientist. That is Professor Emeritus of the art of computer system Programming (a chair created especially because that him), at Stanford University. That is the writer of the multi-volume work, The arts of computer system Programming, which is the \"bible\" the the field of computer programming. As of 2013, the very first three volumes and part one of volume four of this magnum opus had been published.

Knuth earn his Ph.D. In mathematics from the California academy of Technology, whereby he then ended up being a professor and also began work-related on The arts of computer Programming. Knuth is recognized as the “father of the evaluation of algorithms.” He produced the WEB and CWEB computer system programming systems designed to encourage and also facilitate literate programming.

Knuth has actually been honored with numerous awards, consisting of the Stanford University institution of engineering Hero award in 2011, fellow of the Computer background Museum in 1998, and the national Medal of science in 1979, among others.

Knuth was elected to the U.S. Nationwide Academy of sciences in 1975, and in 2003, he was chosen as a international member of the Royal culture of London. In 2009, he was elected as a fellow of the society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, and also in 2012, he became a other of the American mathematical Society.

Web resource: Donald Knuth\"s residence Page.


28. Robert J. Clues II

Robert J. Clues II is the identified Professor that Electrical and also Computer design at Baylor university in Waco, Texas. Previously, he to be on the faculty the the college of Washington because that 25 years. He is a pioneer in the field of computational knowledge (which consists of neural networks, fuzzy sets, and also evolutionary computing), and also was the an initial president of the institute of Electrical and also Electronics designers (IEEE) Neural Networks Council.

Marks received his Ph.D. In electrical engineering indigenous Texas technology University. He has over 300 peer-reviewed journal publications. That is additionally a proponent of intelligent design, holding that details features of the universe and of living points are best explained through an intelligent cause, no an undirected process such as organic selection.

Marks has made essential technical contributions throughout widely diverse areas, such as the spacing the radium inserts come treat prostate cancer, signal display, remote sensing, optical picture sampling, optical computers, and also the usage of fuzzy logic to control the electric grid (how electricity is yielded today counts crucially on the work-related of Marks). He has actually served as a consultant to service providers such together Microsoft and also Boeing corporation.

Marks has actually authored several publications including, the Handbook of Fourier evaluation and the Applications, Neural Smithing: Supervised finding out in Feedforward fabricated Neural Networks, and Applications that Neural Networks to strength Systems, amongst others.

Marks has received countless awards, consisting of the IEEE differentiated Lecturer twice, when from the IEEE Neural Networks board of directors in 1991--92, and again native the IEEE Neural Networks society in 2002--03, and the golden Jubilee Medal in 1999 indigenous the IEEE Circuits and also Systems Society. The is a other of the IEEE.

In 2007, Marks founded the evolutionary Informatics Lab in ~ Baylor to study the information-theoretic underpinnings of intelligent design. The study of the lab has developed a secure stream the peer-reviewed design publications that are influencing countless in the engineering ar to expropriate intelligent design, controversial despite it remains, together a legitimate clinical theory.

Web resource: Robert J. Clues II\"s home Page.


29. Craig C. Mello

Craig C. Mello is a biologist and also professor of molecular medication at the college of Massachusetts. In 2006, he to be awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine, together with Andrew Z. Fire (#14 on ours list), for the discovery of RNA interference (RNAi).

See more: Converting 500 Grams Is How Many Kilograms : How, Converting 500 Grams To Kilograms: How

Mello earned his Ph.D. Native Harvard University and also was a postdoctoral fellow at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer research Center. Fire and Mello\"s Nobel Prize--winning research has shown that RNAi plays a vital role in gene regulation.

Mello is involved in number of RNAi-based biotechnological companies. He co-founded the scientific advisory plank member that RXi Pharmaceuticals, i beg your pardon is now Galena Biopharma. He offer on