You are watching: Who, or what, is responsible for leading the executive departments and advising the president?
As castle painstakingly hammered the end a U.S. Constitution in the spring and also summer the 1787, constitutional delegates toyed v the idea of a presidential advisory body, which would pertained to be well-known as the Cabinet. One proposal dubbed for a “privy council” created of, amongst others, the president of the Senate, the speaker of the House and also the cook justice of the supreme Court. In the end, however, the delegates couldn’t agree ~ above “who have to be on this council—or who have to pick them,” follow to Richard J. Ellis, a politics professor at Willamette college in Oregon who has authored several publications on the American presidency. Together a result, the Constitution makes no cite of anything prefer a Cabinet, rather saying just that the chairman shall have the strength to appoint executive room heads, with the Senate’s approval, and that the chairman “may require the opinion, in writing,” of this officials. “The framers were of many minds on the question of exactly how to develop an advisory apparatus,” Ellis told snucongo.org, “and so take it the path of least resistance and left the to it is in hashed out later.”
But return no mandate compelled him to form a Cabinet, chairman George Washington discovered the concept helpful for soliciting advice top top “interesting concerns of nationwide importance.” top top September 11, 1789, just a couple of months after taking office, he sent out his very first nomination—Alexander Hamilton for Secretary the the Treasury—to the Senate, which in ~ minutes unanimously approved the choice. Three more confirmations quickly followed: Secretary the State thomas Jefferson, Secretary of war Henry Knox and also Attorney basic Edmund Randolph (the last of whom, due to the fact that he operated only part-time because that the government, preserved his private law practice). At first, Washington consulted v his four Cabinet members individually. By loss 1791, however, he had started convening the totality group, and also these meetings came to be commonplace in 1793 as tensions through revolutionary France boil up. Jefferson would later on write that he and also Hamilton were “daily pitted in the Cabinet prefer two cocks,” saying feverishly over such things as the constitutionality the a national bank.
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The Seal of the chairman of the United claims is offered to note correspondence indigenous the U.S. Chairman to the United states Congress, and is additionally used as a symbol of the presidency. (Credit: sassy1902 / www.istockphoto.com)
Since then, the variety of executive departments—and thus the Cabinet—has slowly however steadily increased. The room of the marine (now part of the room of Defense) to be the very first new one added in 1798 throughout the so-called XYZ Affair, interior and farming came in 1849 and also 1889, respectively, together the united States broadened West, and also Labor and Commerce (soon come be split into two) developed in 1903 together the country underwent fast industrialization. Four brand-new departments were created in the 1960s and also 1970s alone, adhered to by the department of Veterans affairs in 1989 and, most recently, the room of homeland Security, which formed in the immediate consequences of the September 11, 2001, terror attacks. Initially, the vice chairman was not a room member, one factor that man Adams famously referred to it as “the many insignificant office that ever the invention of male contrived or his creative thinking conceived.” yet in 1921, president Warren Harding invite VP Calvin Coolidge to on regular basis attend cabinet meetings and also to preside in his absence, and also President Dwight D. Eisenhower solidified that practice three years later. The postmaster general, meanwhile, was a Cabinet position for over 140 year prior to shedding that condition in 1971 when Congress re-designated the write-up Office together “an independent facility of the executive branch.”