The sun does not gain cold in the winter. The sun is a large ball of fire driven by nuclear reactions. The surface of the sun continues to be at an incredibly hot temperature of around 5800 Kelvin all year long. The high temperature that the sun reasons it come constantly emit prodigious amounts of heat radiation in all directions, mainly in the type of infrared waves, visible light, and ultraviolet waves. This radiation spreads throughout our solar system and warms everything it hits.
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Regions of earth are cooler in the winter since the tilt of the earth causes the sunshine to be spread out over a bigger area and therefore be weaker per unit area in these regions. Some civilization think the planet gets cooler in the winter due to the fact that the earth is farther away from the sun, but this idea is wrong. In fact, the earth is the furthest from the sun in the northern hemisphere"s summer, and not winter. But distance to the sun does not have much impact on the quantity of sunlight the planet receives since the distance to the sun does not really readjust that much. The earth is around 150,000,000 kilometers far from the sun. End the food of a year, the street from the planet to the sun changes by at most 5 million kilometers. To placed this in perspective, the orbit the the earth around the sunlight throughout the year is plotted listed below to scale. You can"t tell, but at this scale the planet is 302 pixels indigenous the sun as soon as at the leftmost allude in its orbit and also 298 pixels native the sun as soon as at the rightmost point.
The orbit the the earth roughly the sun, with all sizes and also locations to scale. The white dot close to the facility is the sun, and also the blue line is the route of the earth through-out the year. The earth itself is no visible because at this range it is only 0.02 pixels wide. The distance of the earth from the sunlight is much more or less continuous through-out the year. Publicly Domain Image, source: Christopher S. Baird.
The axis the earth"s rotation is tilted about 23 degrees with respect to its orbit roughly the sun. This mean"s that in the north"s summer time, the northern hemisphere is tilted towards the sun and also in the winter time, the north hemisphere is tilted far from the sun. When a an ar of land is tilted in the direction of the sun in the summer, that way that the sunlight spends an ext time higher in the sky and the sunlight obtained by that spot of floor is an ext direct. In contrast, as soon as that spot on the planet is tilted far from the sun in the winter, the sun is in basic lower in the sky, and also it obtain less direct sunlight. Less direct sunlight means that the sunlight is coming in in ~ a low angle, so the it is smeared across a greater area once it access time the surface. Because it is smeared over a better area, winter sunlight has actually less strength per unit area, and therefore heats the planet less, resulting in cold winters.
As shown here, the north hemisphere receives less sunlight every unit area once it is tilted far from the sun and experiences the cold that winter. In ~ the exact same time, the southerly hemisphere is receiving an ext sunlight per unit area because it is tilted in the direction of the sun and experiences the heat of summer. Sunshine is stood for as yellow beams to show the impact of edge on spreading. Windy Domain Image, source: Christopher S. Baird.
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Interestingly, when the northern hemisphere is tilted in the direction of the sun, the southern hemisphere is tilted away. This way that as soon as the phibìc is having actually summer, the southern is having actually winter and when the phibìc is having actually winter, the southern is having summer. The result of sunlight angle top top temperature have the right to be most conveniently seen at the extremes. Near the southern pole and also the phibìc pole, the sunlight is always an extremely low in the sky, and the sunlight always comes in in ~ a an extremely low angle. Together a result, the poles room generally very cold. In contrast, near the equator, the sun is constantly high in the sky around noon and the sunshine is really direct. As a result, the regions close to the equator space generally really hot.