The continuing collapse the the footrest Empire corresponded with the increase of nationalism in the Balkans, i m sorry led to increased tensions and conflicts in the region. This “powder keg” was hence a significant catalyst because that the outbreak of human being War I.

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Key Points

By the early 20th century, Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, and also Serbia had achieved independence indigenous the ottoman Empire, but big elements of their ethnic populations remained under footrest rule. In 1912 these nations formed the Balkan League and also declared war on the Ottomans to reclaim territory.Four Balkan states defeated the Ottoman empire in the very first war; one of the four, Bulgaria, suffered defeat in the 2nd war.The tensions and also conflicts in this are regularly referred to as the “Balkan flour keg” and had implications beyond the region.There were a number of overlapping claims to territories and spheres of influence between the significant European powers, such together the Russian Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the German realm and, to a lesser degree, the footrest Empire, the united Kingdom, and also Kingdom the Italy.Relations between Austria and also Serbia ended up being increasingly bitter and also Russia feeling humiliated ~ Austria and Germany prevented that from help Serbia.The flour keg at some point “exploded” bring about the first World War, which started with a conflict in between imperial Austria-Hungary and also Pan-Slavic Serbia.

Key Terms

irredentismAny politics or well-known movement intended to reclaim and reoccupy a “lost” or “unredeemed” area; territorial cases are justification on the basis of actual or imagine national and also historic (an area formerly component of that state) or country (an area occupied by that country or ethnic group) affiliations. It is often advocated by nationalist and pan-nationalist movements and also has to be a feature of identity politics and cultural and political geography.BalkansA peninsula and a cultural area in Southeastern Europe with various and disputed borders. The region takes its name from the Balkan hills that stretch indigenous the Serbia-Bulgaria border to the black Sea. Problems here to be a major contributing variable to the outbreak of WWI.Pan-SlavismA movement which crystallized in the mid-19th century pertained to with the development of integrity and unity because that the Slavic people. That main affect occurred in the Balkans, wherein non-Slavic empires—the byzantine Empire, Austria-Hungary, the footrest Empire, and also Venice—had ruled the south Slavs because that centuries.

The “Balkan powder keg,” additionally termed the “powder keg of Europe,” describes the Balkans in the early component of the 20th century preceding people War I. There to be a variety of overlapping cases to territories and spheres of influence between the significant European powers, such together the Russian Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the German empire and, to a lesser degree, the footrest Empire, the joined Kingdom, and also Kingdom of Italy.

In enhancement to the imperialistic ambitions and interests in this region, there was a growth in nationalism amongst the aboriginal peoples, causing the formation of the independent says of Greece, Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, Romania, and also Albania.

Within these nations, over there were activities to create “greater” nations: come enlarge the boundaries of the state past those areas where the national ethnic team was in the bulk (termed irredentism). This led to conflict between the freshly independent nations and also the realm from which they split, the ottoman Empire. Additionally, it caused differences between the Balkan countries who wished to obtain territory in ~ the price of their neighbors. Both the problem with the footrest Empire and also between the Balkan nations brought about the Balkan Wars, disputed below.

In a different vein, the ideology of Pan-Slavism in Balkans gained popularity; the activity built roughly it in the an ar sought to unite all of the Slavs that the Balkans into one nation, Yugoslavia. This, however, would call for the union of several Balkan states and territory the was component of Austria-Hungary. Because that this reason, Pan-Slavism to be strongly opposed by Austria-Hungary, while that was sustained by Russia which regarded itself as leader of every Slavic nations.

To complicated matters, in the years preceding human being War I, there existed a tangle of good Power alliances, both formal and informal, public and secret. Complying with the Napoleonic Wars, over there existed a “balance of power” come prevent significant wars. This theory organized that opposing combinations of powers in Europe would be same matched, entailing that any general war would be far too costly to danger entering. This system started to fall apart together the ottoman Empire, seen together a examine on Russian power, started to crumble, and as Germany, a loose confederation of young states, to be united right into a significant power. Not only did these transforms lead to a realignment that power, however of interests as well.

All this factors and many rather conspired to bring around the first World War. As is insinuated by the surname “the powder keg of Europe,” the Balkans were no the significant issue at stake in the war, yet were the catalyst that resulted in the conflagration. The Chancellor that Germany in the so late 19th century, rose oil von Bismarck, appropriately predicted it would be the resource of significant conflict in Europe.

The powder keg “exploded” bring about the first World War, which began with a conflict in between imperial Austria-Hungary and also Pan-Slavic Serbia.


Balkan Troubles: Germany, France, Russia, Austria-Hungary, and Britain attempting to keep the lid top top the simmering cauldron the imperialist and nationalist tensions in the Balkans to avoid a basic European war. They were effective in 1912 and 1913 however did not succeed in 1914, bring about the outbreak of people War I.


Balkan Wars

The continuing collapse that the Ottoman realm led to 2 wars in the Balkans, in 1912 and also 1913, which to be a prelude to people war. Through 1900 country states had developed in Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro and also Serbia. Nevertheless, numerous of your ethnic compatriots live under the manage of the ottoman Empire. In 1912, these nations formed the Balkan League. There were 3 main causes of the an initial Balkan War. The Ottoman realm was unable to revolutionary itself, govern satisfactorily, or deal with the climbing ethnic nationalism of its varied peoples. Secondly, the good Powers quarreled amongst themselves and also failed come ensure the the Ottomans would bring out the required reforms. This led the Balkan states to i charged their own solution. Most importantly, the members of the Balkan league were confident the it might defeat the Turks, which would certainly prove to it is in the case.

The first Balkan War broke out as soon as the League assaulted the Ottoman realm on October 8, 1912, and also was finished seven months later on by the treaty of London. After five centuries, the Ottoman realm lost virtually all of its possessions in the Balkans. The Treaty had actually been imposed by the great Powers, dissatisfying the victorious Balkan states. Bulgaria to be dissatisfied over the division of the spoils in Macedonia, made in mystery by its former allies, Serbia and also Greece, and also attacked to force them the end of Macedonia, starting the 2nd Balkan War. The Serbian and Greek armies repulsed the Bulgarian offensive and also counter-attacked right into Bulgaria, if Romania and also the ottoman Empire likewise attacked Bulgaria and also gained (or regained) territory. In the resulting treaty of Bucharest, Bulgaria shed most of the areas it had gained in the an initial Balkan War.

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The long-term an outcome was heightened stress and anxiety in the Balkans. Relations between Austria and also Serbia came to be increasingly bitter. Russia felt humiliated after ~ Austria and also Germany prevented that from help Serbia. Bulgaria and also Turkey were additionally dissatisfied, and eventually join Austria and Germany in the an initial World War.